Non-Coercive Defence Diplomacy–counteringmilitarisation, with militarydiplomacy.
Presented at the 2NDCONFERENCE OFAFRICANDIPLOMATIC ACADEMIES, RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS AND UNIVERSITIES,19 March 2019DrYolanda K. SpiesUniversity of Johannesburg
Col. Robin Blake(ex-SANDF)Lecturer atUniversity ofPretoriaForthcoming: Co-authored article onNCDD for Conflict Prevention, inScientiaMilitaria.
Africa, military prominence and conflict
Militarisationof a continent: colonial times & post-colonial, Cold War & post-Cold WarDomestic manifestation: inflated military influence and power;militarisationbeforedevelopment;strong men regimes, coups as regime change.Somepositive militaryrole(SA,Zim, Egypt)Military in FP: Foreign aid as military aid; military men as ambassadors; solidarity with military regimes; reluctance to intervene, even w. legal justificationA continent full of ‘negative peace’ (e.g. South Sudan, DRC, CAR, Côte d’Ivoire, Mozambique)Need to rethink the FP-military relationship.
Foreign Policy and its tools
Foreignpolicy: policy and actions of a state, directed toward the external worldTypes of FP tools:Political(e.g. diplomacy)EconomicSocio-culturalMilitaryOverlaps,greyareas among toolsTools can be usedcoercivelyandnon-coercivelyTools can be combinedDiplomacy-military nexus: variousoutcomese.g. coercive diplomacy,defencediplomacy
Military-diplomacyrelationship: historic and universalPost-CW increase, and focus changeAlldiplomatic levels: bilateral, multilateral; third party andpolylateralMain Functions ofDefenceDiplomacy:• supports political commitments forcooperation• fosters commoninterests• establishes, broadens or deepens cooperation between defenceforces• demonstrates transparency to limitmisunderstandingsThese actions can work towards:developmentgoalsregional integration goalsconflict management andconflict prevention
Examples of Defence Diplomacy
defence attachés appointed to diplomatic missionsdefence specialists seconded to multilateral organisationsformal defence cooperation agreements (e.g. treaties)training of defence & civilian personnelprovision of expertise & advice on defence-related mattersship visits and other military related exchangesjoint training exercisesprovision of military equipment & technical expertisepreventive deploymentdemilitarized zones, safe havens and peace zonesarms embargoes and blockadesarms control regimesjoint patrolling and ceasefire monitoringnon-aggression agreementsnon-offensive force posturesintelligence exchanges and early warning information disseminationprovidingHumanitarian and Disaster Relief (HADR)exchange of annual calendars of military activities
NCDD has narrowerapplicationthan defence diplomacyNothreat or actual use of violencePrinciples: transparency, reputation and integrityNettbenefitisConflict Prevention.How?Drawson new approaches to conflict managementInfectious, non-linear conflict: Stable/positive peace must be‘built’Long-term, holisticapproach:conflictpreventionalsopart of post-conflict strategiesMany stakeholders, including defence forcesSynchronisedwith life conflict stagesNCDDessential during ‘negative peace’ (1sttwo stages);beforeviolence3stages: incipient, latent and manifest conflict (Christopher Mitchell).ApproachBuilds long-term, constructiverelationships; Focuseson similarities rather than on differencesAssists in modifying conflictualbehaviour; avoidshenemonyCreatesTRUST. Keyconcept: Confidence Building Measures (CBMs) or CSBMsPrioritisesearly warning systems
NCDD at the pan-African level
Pan-Africanistideal to integrate defence relationsOAU, AUinstitutionalweaknesses.Certain regions lead,e.g. ECOWASAfrican Peace & Security Architecture1. Peace& Security Council“to anticipate and prevent conflicts”;“to implement the common defence policy of the AU”;“take on peace-making & peace-buildingfunctions incl. peace support operations”. NB!! A diplomatic body with crucial defence diplomacy mandate2. Panelof the Wise3. AfricanPeace Fund4. AfricanStandby Force5. ContinentalEarly Warning Systeminformation collection and monitoring;conflict and cooperation analysis; andformulation of response optionsClearimperative for strategic priorityto NCDD!
Two obvious imperatives for Africa: rehabilitate the role of defence forces, and reduce conflict.NCDD an obvious dual remedy, and available to all statesSome practical proposalsDip Academies: teach diplomats about NCDDDefence Academies: take on board dip skills (e.g. mediation, negotiation, networking etc.).Revolving-door exchanges, joint ventures between defence forces & research institutionsRegional training, sharing of NCDD resourcesAU institutional capacity building in NCDDNCDD explicitly included in state, REC and AU policy
Defence forces in Africa have been politically prominent (and often maligned) in the post-colonial dispensation, but their potentialpositiveagency,specifically to prevent conflictis a largely untapped resource.NCDDrequires more strategic attention and investmentin training to allow for itsimplementation. Diplomatic studies institutes, and diplomatic training centres, have a key role in this regard.