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Debate Notes_ Arguments -

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Debate Notes:Arguments
Building the Affirmative and the NegativeConstructive Arguments
Building the Affirmative Constructive Argument
The Objective of Affirmatives:Support the position to be developed“We should adopt this”Include a justification(s) for change, a plan, and the advantages of the plan“We should adopt this because…”Need to win ALL arguments to carry the debateFollows two basic ideas to advance
Basic Ideas to Advance
1.) Defends that the future without the adoption of the resolution is not as good as it could beMust prove inherency, meaning that the action proposed would not come about through the natural progression of the present system (the status quo)Calls for a change, the adoption of new policies or ideasProves that there is some reason to exert effort in behalf of the resolution
Basic Ideas to Advance
2.) Defends that the future with adoption of the resolution is more promising than the future without the resolutionAdoption of the resolution would make our world better rather than worseProves that the benefits outweigh the costsThe resolution not only resolves the problem it is designed to change, but also that the action does not bring about more harms than benefits
Example Arguments: Affirmative
Write an affirmative constructive for the following arguments:HHS should adopt school uniformsAnimal testing should be bannedThe legal drinking age should be lowered to 18
Building the Negative Constructive Argument
The Objective of Negatives:Eliminate affirmative arguments (straight refutation)Defend the present system (status quo)Need to win only one argument (harm, inherency, plan meets need, or disadvantage) to carry the debate
Basic Ideas to Advance
1.) May choose todeny that the affirmative’s picture of the future without adoption of the resolution is correct, showing instead that probably little or no harm will exist. This position focuses on minimizing the affirmative’s rationale for adopting the resolution (resolving the affirmative harm)
Basic Ideas to Advance
Examples:Argues that the affirmative’s measurements of harm are inadequate ormisleadingThat the problem the affirmative isolates is not a problem at all because people desire risksThat no one really knows at present what the future will look like
Basic Ideas to Advance
2.)May choose to deny that voting for the resolution is necessary to bring about the good world the affirmative says will result if the resolution is implemented. This position focuses on negating the affirmative’s claim that there are unique reasons for adopting the resolution (denying affirmative inherence)
Basic Ideas to Advance
Examples:Argues that self-limiting factors within the present system will solve the problemThat the present system has adopted programs which, if given the chance to work, will solve the problemThat recent changes in conditions external to the harm will solve it in the future
Basic Ideas to Advance
3.)May choose to make the counterclaim that the future envisioned by the affirmative will not come about because the resolution is not very effective. This position focuses on negating the affirmative’s claims that any benefits at all will flow from the affirmative plan (the plan will not meet the needs)
Basic Ideas to Advance
Examples:Argues that other factors that cause the problem will persistThat the plan cannot work because of some internal flaw (like limited manpower or technology)That the plan will be circumvented
Basic Ideas to Advance
4.)May argue that, contrary to the affirmative’s allegations, the plan will result in great harms. Maintains that the unintended consequences of the affirmative plan are more harmful than the benefits of adopting the resolution. This position focuses on constructing disadvantages to the affirmative plan.
Basic Ideas to Advance
5.)The negative may also offer a counterplan that focuses on a future world that is better than the one envisioned by the affirmativeandthat cannot exist if the affirmative plan is adopted.
Example Arguments: Negative
Write a negative constructive for the following arguments:Students should be able to leave school for lunchAll people should be vegetariansVideo games are too violent
Law Example
Matt is accusedofstranglingand killing Bill behind the bleachers during a Heritage JV home volleyball game
Prosecution (Affirmative)
Maintainsthat Matt was seen committing themurderThatthemurderwas acrimeThatthe court has a duty to punishMatt(Prosecution must prove all to be true)
Defense (Negative)
Maintains that Matt did not commit the actThat if Matt did commit the act, it cannot be defined as murderThat even if it could be defined as murder, the quality of the action was such that it served some greater cause and is not deserving of punishmentThat even if all the above were correct, the court does not have the jurisdiction to punish Matt(Defense could make all of these arguments or only one)





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Debate Notes_ Arguments -