HUBERT KAIRUKI MEMORIAL UNIVERSITYDEPARTEMENT: BEHAVIOURAL SCINCE AND ETHICSTOPIC: GROUP COUNSELLINGFACILITATOR: PROF. MASALAKULANGWA
MUZDALIFA TAWAKALSAMHA NASSORMERCY MWAKASAGULEROSESHUNDIKELVIN MARIKIJURNBERTH MAZIMAEMMANUEL MASSAWE
INTRODUCTIONOBJECTIVESDEFINITION OF TERMSMAIN DISCUSSIONSUMMARYCONCLUSIONRECOMMENDATIONREFERENCE
S.HFoulkes& WilfredBionpioneered group counselling in U.K, by using the method (of group counselling) as a way of treating combat fatigue during world war II.However, the group counselling technique was first used in America in the early 20thcentury.
To understand the main concept behind a group counselling.To be able to differentiate between group counselling and one-on-one counselling.To know why and how group counselling is important to us.
C. DEFINATION OF TERMS
Therapy: is a caring relationship between a mental health professional and a patient.Therapist: a person skilled in a particular kind of therapy.Addiction: the fact of being addicted to a particular substance, thing or activity.Team building: is a collective terms for various types of activities used to enhance social relations and define roles within teams, often involving collaborative tasks.Maladaptive behaviour: a type of behaviour that inhibit a person’s ability to adjust to a particular situation.
D. MAIN PRESENTATION
Group counselling is a form of therapy where people with similar experiences of issues come together with a profession therapist.The therapist runs the session but generally everyone contributes in someway, listening to others& talking about themselves.Usually involve 7-12 people and a counsellor (therapist).
Types of Groups
Formal groupA formal group is crated within an organization to complete a specific role or task.Informal groupAre established by individuals who decide they want to interact with each other.Primary groupis made up of a small group of people who interact regularly. Example, a family can be a primary group.Secondary groupwhen a large group of people get together (who do not normally get together)
Issued Covered by Group Counselling
Usually focused on particular issues such as:AddictionBereavementEating disorderAnxietyDepressionObsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). etc
Principle Behind Group Counselling
The main principle behind group counselling is that meeting other people who are dealing with something similar and hearing their stories that let people know they are not aloneDepression, bereavementcan bereally isolating and make a person feel like they are facing the world alone. Group counselling can be a good way of getting over those feelings of isolation and realizing there are other people in the same boat.
It can also be easier to talk to people who share the same issue. They can understand how you feel a bit more than family members or friends who haven't had firsthand experience of the problem you are dealing with.
Aims of GroupCounselling
To help individuals identify their maladaptive behaviour.As there is room for comparison, a person may discover that he/she is not perhaps as adaptive as would think.To help with emotional difficulties through feedback.The feedback could be advised from the counsellor or even practical tips from others in a group who have experienced a similar problem themselves. The aim is to help a person learn his/her own coping method so he/she can handle things when problem arise.
To offer a supportive environment.Apart from receiving feedback and advice, it is also an opportunity to support others. Speaking to people who are going through similar issue to yourself, helps you to feel less isolated and therefore more supported.
Stages of Group development
Stage 1 : orientation (forming) group members learning what to do, how the group will operate, what is expected and what is acceptable. Group members watch the facilitator and each other for cues and clues, and seek guidelines and stated expectation. They want to feel safe and comfortable, and many will do only limited sharing until that comfort zone is established.
Stage 2: power struggle (storming)It is normal for some power struggles to emerge. As group members become more comfortable, attempt to form cliques and exclude or ignore certain group members, and push limits. This can be frustrating for everyone involved, but it helps to know it’s just a stage and things tend to get much better once its past.
Stage 3: cooperation and integration (norming).This is where being in group becomes fun and enjoyable most of the time. Group interaction becomes easier, more cooperative, and productive with balanced give and take, open communication, bonding and mutual respect. If there is a conflict or disruption, its relatively easily resolved and the group gets back on track.
Stage 4: synergy (perfoming).Not every group reaches this level, and if a group member spend most of the time in stage 3, it will still be a productive and enjoyable group. Here , there is asensof group unity, group members look for each other even outside of the group setting, deepening friendships or bonds and a dynamic energy no matter what the task.
Stage 5: closure ( adjourning).The closure stage of a group can be confusing and disconcerting if youdontknow its coming. After weeks or months of a smoothly running group, when the end of group approaches, things may start to fall apart for no apparent reason. Some group members may bicker with criticize each other, and anger may surface in unexpected ways. This is normal because many people have no idea how to deal with endings, goodbyes or losses and they don't know how to find closure.
How it Works
There are lots of different types of group counselling. Some groups are more structured, and are based around doing activities or projects together, team building, discussion and even physical games.Examples of those activities are skill development, problem solving or trust building exercise.
Other groups are more freeform i.e. meetings where people have conversation about how they are doing and listening to others.Some have a set of number of sessions and others are drop-in groups that one can attend if and whenever he/she need to.
How it is Done
During the first session, members of the group may start by introducing themselves and sharing why they are there.After this the counsellor may encourage members to discuss their experience and progress. The way in which a counselling session is structured will depend on the style of the counsellor running the session and the nature of concerns being explored.
Even if it is done in groups, the session are confidential among the members of the group and counsellor himself just as they would be in one-to-one counselling session.
As a Counsellor(who counsel a group)
Counsellor should understand that, some people will not want to talk or even take part in the activities, counsellor should not force them at the beginning.For some people it takes few weeks of sitting and listening before they feel ready to talk about their own experience.
No pressure should be put to that person, and a counsellor should make sure a person does not feel pressured to do anything he/she do not want to do.Make use of group dynamic to achieve aims of the group session.
Group counselling is a kind of psychological therapy that takes place with a group of people together rather than with an individual during a one-on-one session.Group counselling provides an opportunity to share experiences, learn perspective and experiment with new behaviours in safe and supportive environment.
Group counselling as form of counselling done by one or more therapist to treat a small group of people.It includes any helping process that takes place in a group i.e., support, training skills such as anger management, mindfulness, relaxation training and social skills.
Counselling through groups have made people to share many of their experience in life which by doing through which have retrieve many of their problems which they have faced.As counsellors, we should apply our knowledge so as to come with the better solution where we come across any psychological problem.
www.conselling-directory.org.uk/group-therapy.htmlwww.ie.reachout.comwww.school-counselling-zone.comwww.counsellingconnection.comCounselling skills for health professionals. By PhilipBurnard.