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Building Social Capital Among New Nursing Professionals

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Building social capital to Foster Development of new Nursing Professionals
Sheryl Jenkins, PhD, ACNP,RNTeaching and Learning SymposiumIllinois State UniversityJanuary 6th,2010
Acknowledgements
This study was sponsored by a grant from Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, Research and Sponsored Programs, Illinois State UniversityThe Research Team: Dr. Sheryl Jenkins, Dr. Betsy Carlson, Dr. CindyKerber, Dr. SusanKossman, Ms. DebStenger, Ms. JamiePenrod, Ms. Jessica Sullivan, Mr. Jose Mantilla-Acevedo, and Ms. Melissa Fox
Background
Institute of MedicineMedical errors cause 98,000 deaths per year in USResearchers should investigate strategies to build social capital (IOM, 2003)Nursing LiteratureStudent incivilityDistracting conversationsComputers use unrelated to classArriving late or leaving earlyDemanding make-up exams, grade changes, etc.Faculty incivilityCondescending remarksRude comments or gesturesChanging class assignments
Goal
MCN Exit Survey DataFavorable ratingsInstructorsAdministrative supportLearning outcomesLess favorable ratings for their peersCamaraderieAcademic integrityAbility to work in groupsFaculty observationIncivility among studentsIncivility between students and facultyGoalsExplore dimensions of student dissatisfaction with classmates and incivility to othersDevelop strategies to build social capital
Methodology
Community Based Participatory ResearchCollaborative approach that involves community members and researchers in the research processLink faculty and students in conducting researchMixed Methods Study
Procedure
Student researchers selected at random (n=10)Peer Support PersonsLab AssistantsResearch team administer pre and post-testsSocial Capital Surveyto all MCN students (n=150)Social Capital Interviewwith student researchersWays of Coping Questionnaireto student researchersResearch team examine exit survey data
Procedure
Student researchers:AdministerSocial Capital Interviewto MCN students (n= 29)Participate in monthly Journal ClubExamine nursing literature on social capital and civilityGroup learning activitiesKeep on-line journalIncorporate civility and build social capital in their interactions with students
Data Analysis
Qualitative dataConcept analysis identification of themesQuantitative dataDescriptive statisticsMean differences between pre- and post- intervention measures
Results: Civility
What is civility?“Finding a way to get along with each other.”“Working with others and having respect for others.”“Treat others the way you’d want to be treated.”Why is civility important?“Especially important in nursing because you have to rely on each other to succeed. If classmates aren’t civil, succeeding is extremely difficult.”“Everybody needs to be there for each other to get things done. So much to learn and to do, especially in the clinical setting.”“You have to work as a team in nursing.”
Results: Civility
Can you give an example of civility?“When I was really sick and other students let me use their notes for class that day.”“In clinical I had a very demanding patient and other students went out of their way to help me.”Can you give an example of incivility?“In clinical, students won’t answer questions, they just walk away. You depend on them and they’re not there for you.”“A classmate intentionally gave someone the wrong answer on a test they were studying for… There’s such competition between people.”
Results: Camaraderie
What is camaraderie?“Interacting in a good way. Laughing and joking and being able to get along together.”“You work together to get something done.”Why is camaraderie important?“If it’s not there it makes the classroom full of tension. It’s difficult to concentrate when you’re being ignored and you don’t have any friends.”“It’s so important to have friends in nursing. To have someone who knows what you’re going through because it’s not like any other major.”“You really need to lean on each other and be a resource for each other. It relieves stress.”
Results: camaraderie
Can you give an example of camaraderie?“You have to give abedbathto a difficult patient. You bring someone else in and work together as a team.”I’ve made so many friends in nursing. We joke around and lean on each other and have fun.”Can you give an example of lack of camaraderie?“Students ignore you in clinical. Don’t even look at you.”“Cliques, gossip.”“If you’re working on a group project and somebody won’t do the work… won’t even come to the meetings.”
Results: study groups
Why is the ability to work in study groups important?“So much information you are trying to learn in a short amount of time. Study groups alert you to the information you’re not quite getting yet and bring up things you’ve forgotten.”“In nursing you have to work together as a team, so it gives us a good chance to practice working with others.”
Results: study groups
Can you give an example of effective behavior?“Everyone participates… are really open and helpful.”“Being respectful, hears the others, asks for input.”Quiet while others are talking. Making the best use of time.”Can you give an example of ineffective behavior?“Reading only their stuff and not paying attention to what the group is doing.”“We work hard to make a study guide and somebody comes along and wants it, but they didn’t participate in putting it together.”
Results: Academic integrity
What is academic integrity?“Being honest about your work at all times… no copying or plagiarizing.”“Doing the best you can, being honest about your work and taking pride in it.”“Do your own work. Think your own thoughts.”Why is academic integrity important?“Especially in nursing, if you glide by on other people’s work and get into the profession, it’s really bad for you and especially bad for your patient. You are putting someone’s life in danger.”“We’re going to be nurses. You have to have your own knowledge because it’s life or death.”
Results: Academic integrity?
Can you give an example of academic integrity?“You have an assignment to turn in the next day, and you really want to go to bed, but you stay up anyway… so it’s all your work.”“Cite your sources. Don’t cheat on tests.”Can you give an example of lack of academic integrity?“Calling up a friend and asking ‘what did you get for this’ instead of looking it up yourself.”“A senior passed along a copy of an Adult I exam. Those students had an unfair advantage. It’s not fair to us and it’s not going to be fair to their patients when those nurses don’t know their stuff.”
Results: Themes
Civility is crucial for:Success in the classroom and clinicalGetting things doneCamaraderie is crucial for:Emotional support and stress reliefWorking in groups is crucial for:Learning the informationNursing practiceGetting things doneAcademic integrity iscrucial for:Patient safetyThe profession of nursing
References
Carlson, E. & Chamberlain, R. (2003). Social capital, health and health disparities.Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 4thquarter.Clark, C. (2008). Faculty and student assessment of and experience with incivility in nursing education.Journal of Nursing Education, 47.Institute of Medicine (2003).Health professions education: A bridge to quality.Greiner &Knebel(Eds). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

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Building Social Capital Among New Nursing Professionals