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Lecture 5. Expressive means and stylistic devices (part III)

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Expressive means and stylistic devices (part III)
The theory of stylistic devices, suggested byV.V.Gurevich.1. Stylistic devices making use of the meaning of language units (figures of speech)2. Stylistic devices making use of the structure of language units3. Phonetic expressive means and devices
1. Stylistic devicesbased on the meaning of language units
MetaphorMetonymyZeugmaPunOxymoronHyperboleLitotesEpithetPeriphrasisPersonification,Allusion,IronyRhetorical questions.
Metaphor(O.I.Glazunova)
Nominal metaphoric phrase/ constructionPredicative metaphoric phrase/ constructionGenitive metaphoric phrase/ construction
“And down they bringpearlsrowe…”“That everRoseon Scotia’s plain…”“…and Lifeis afaught…”“Thou’llbreak my heart…”“How quick Timeis flying…”“…acup of kindness…”“…at Fortune’s door…”
Metaphor(O.I.Glazunova) (2)
Adverbial metaphoric phraseAttributive metaphoric phraseSimilePhraseological units
“He burned with desire…”«Thechrystalstreamlets…”«My Love is like a red Rose…”«My Love is like a melody,“I pulled a rose”
Metonymy
SynecdocheContainer instead of contentCharacteristic feature instead of the objectName of the instrument instead of the action/doer.
2. Stylistic devices based on the structure of language units
Repetition1)Lexical repetitionAnaphora– the repetition of he same elements in the beginning of several sentences.EX.: No tree, no shrub, no blade of grass, not a bird or beast, not even a fish that was not owned!Epiphora- the repetition of he same elements in the end of several sentences.2)Syntactic repetitionsyntactic tautologyorsyntactic parallelismEX. Little MissMuffet/ She sat on atuffet.
Stylisticdevices based on the structure of language units (2)
Climax– lexical or syntactic repetition of elements which is combined with gradual increase in the emotionalcolouringof the sentence.EX. I got to be agreeable to her. I got to give her presents. … I’m a slave to that woman.Anticlimax– the opposite to the climax (the final element is obviously weaker in degree).EX. Music makes one feel so romantic – at least it gets on one’s nerves.
Stylistic devices based on the structure of language units (3)
Stylistic inversionfull inversion(EX. Blessed are the poor in spirit)partial inversion(EX. How little had I realized, that…)Ellipsis- consists in omission of some parts of the sentence that are easily understood from the context.EX. The sea is just another sky,The sky a sea as well…
Stylisticdevices based on the structure of languageunits(4)
Asyndeton- is a deliberate omission of conjunctions.EX. There’s no use in talking to him, he’s perfectly idiotic! (reason: because)Polysyndeton- (opposite to asyndeton) the repeated use of the same connectors before several parts of sentence.EX. With the curling smoke of wigwams,With the rushing of great rivers…
Stylisticdevices based on the structure of language units (5)
Chiasm- a reversed version of syntactic parallelism.EX. Down dropped the breeze,/ The sails dropped down.Antithesis- a structure that stresses a sharp contrast in meaning between the parts within 1 sentence.EX. Some people are wise, some otherwise.One man’s meat is another man’s poison.
3. Phonetic expressive means and devices
Alliteration– is a device based on repetition of the same or similar sounds at close distance, which makes speech more expressive.EX. Willy-nilly (volence-nolence), hurly-burly (=noise).Assonance– (a variant of alliteration)1) repetition of the same vowels only.EX. The wear and tear of the city life.2) an imperfect rhyme, when only vowels are rhymed.EX. Number – blunder, same – cane.
3. Phonetic expressive means and devices(2)
Onomatopoeia– (sound imitation) – the use of words which denote some phenomenon by imitating its real sounding (produced by animals or natural noises).directindirect
The use of Rhythm and rhyme in versification
Rhymeis produced by alternation of regular alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables.Why do you cry, Willie?('UU/'UU)Why do you cry?('UU/')
systems of versification(1)
Syllabic system(French poetry) – the samenumber of syllablesin different lines, whether stressed or unstressed.Tonic system(Anglo-Saxon poetry of old times)-thenumber ofstressed syllables.Syllabic-tonic systemof versification (modern English, Russian poetry) is based on therepetition of thesame number of stressed and unstressed syllables.
types of feet (1)
A Foot– is the division of poetic line from stress to stress1.trochee(2 syllables:1-stressed, 2-nd – unstressed)EX. Peter, Peter, pumpkin-eater('U/'U/'U/'U)2.iambus(2 syllables:1-unstressed, 2-nd – stressed)EX. And then my love and I shall pace…(U'/U'/U'/U')
typesof feet(2)
3.dactil(3 syllables:1-stressed, 2 – unstressed)EX. Why do you cry, Willie?('UU/'UU)4.amphibrach(3 syllables, the stress on the 2-nd)EX. Adiller, a dollar, a ten o’clock scholar…(U'U/U'U/U'U/U'U)5.anapest(3 syllables, the stress on the 3-nd)EX. Said the flee, ‘Let us fly’…(UU'/UU')
systems of versification(2)
The type of foot and the number of feet in the line determine theMetreof the verse:trimetre,tetrametre,pentametreetc.Rhymeis created by the repetition of the same sounds in the last stressed syllable of 2 (or more) lines in a stanza.
Types of Rhymes (1)
Male rhyme-the stress falls on the last syllable),the Female rhyme- the stress falls on the last but one syllable:EX. When the lamp is shattered (F.R.)The light in the dust lies dead; (M.R.)When the cloud is scattered, (F.R.)The rainbow’s glory is shed. (M.R.)
rhymingpatterns (1)
Paired rhymes–the rhyming pattern isAABBEX. The seed you sow, another reaps;(A)The wealth ye find, another keeps;(A)The robes ye weave, another wears;(B)The arm ye forge, another bears.(B)
rhyming patterns(2)
Alternate rhymes- the rhyming pattern isABABEX. A slumber did my spirit seal; (A)I had no human fears:(B)She seemed a thing that could not feel (A)The touch of earthly wears. (B)
rhyming patterns(3)
Enclosing rhymes- the rhyming pattern isABBAEX.Much have I traveled in the realms of gold, (A)And many goodly states and kingdoms seen; (B) Round many western islands have I been (B)Which bards in loyalty to Apollo hold. (A)
Types of Rhymes(2)
Eye-rhyme– when the elements rhymed aresimilar only in spelling, not in pronunciation:EX.Sometimes whoever seeks abroad may find…Thy hair soft-lifted by the winnowing wind.Types of stanza:Ballad, Sonnet, Blank verse.

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Lecture 5. Expressive means and stylistic devices (part III)