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Lecture 1_ Introduction - MIT

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Lecture8: Priestly Conduct and Preaching
Dr. Ann T. Orlando
Tensions betweenvitacontemplativaandvitaactivaPriestly duty and authorityPreaching and rhetoricPope St Gregory the Great
The contemplative life of study and prayer was (is) considered the superior way of lifeUnderstood as removed fromvitaactivaBut few are able or called to devote themselves to this way of lifeThe role ofvitacontemplativafor priests will be addressed in next classNB the aversion to priesthood (or worse the episcopacy) was that it was a call to an active life
Proper conduct (morality) in thevitaactivais rooted in Stoic understandingRank and duty within and to orders in societyAuthority associated with rank and dutyUltimately, rank and duty in society are governed by ProvidenceThus the effect of good acts is ‘under reserve’They come to fruition only if decreed by FateSee Cicero,DeOfficiis“Forno phase of life, whether public or private, whether in business or in the home, whether one is working on what concerns oneself alone or dealing with another, can be without its moral duty; on the discharge of such duties depends all that is morally right, and on their neglect all that is morally wrong in life.” I.2.4
Presbyter and BishopMoral example to the laityTeach catechumensPreach faithfulBishopOrdain PresbytersJudge (ecclesial and civil after Constantine)Offer theSacrificeI Timothy is very concerned with teachingWho should teachWho should not teach (especially women, I Tm2)Presbyters are called out as teachers and preacher (I Tm 5:17)
General Duties of the Priest and Bishop in early Church
Homileo, Greek, to converse with, to addressIn antiquity this was often associated with speeches given at symposiumsIn Jewish practice, associated conversations while studying the Law in synagoguePhilo uses the term in both senses in his description of the gathering of theTherapeutae, described inOn the Contemplative Life, 75-78During their festal gathering, a presider selects a passage from ScriptureHe then expounds on its meaning
Early Uses of ‘Homily’
Luke uses this word in both the Gospel and the ActsIn Lk 24:14, 17 the disciples on the road to EmmausIn Acts 20:11, Paul goes to an upper room; breaks bread; then converses with Christians in TroasDuring the later 1stand 2ndC Christianity, it comes to mean a presentation by the bishop/presbyter at the EucharistFocused on explainingScripture
Early Christian Homily Preachingand Teaching in a Homily
Greek,kateckeo, to instructNot found in LXX, and not often used in secular Greek sourcesIn New Testament used to mean to instruct or informLuke (Gospel and Acts)Paul (Romans, I Corinthians,Galacians)In the early Church, those who were being informed in preparation for Baptism were catechumensBishops offered them catechetical instructions
Related Concept: Catechesis
Written to a deacon in Carthage who has been tasked with instructing catechumensDeacon has written to Augustine because he feels inadequateAugustine offers suggestionsHow to present the faith rooted in ScriptureHownot to become discouraged when teaching
An Example:Augustine on How to Instruct Beginners in the Faith
Pope St. Gregory Great (546-604)
Established a monastery in Rome that followed Benedict’s RuleWrote a life of Benedict; only source of information on Benedict andScholastica(according to Gregory both smarter and greater in love than her brother)Reformed Roman clergy around monasticmodelSent Augustine of Canterbury to EnglandEarliest extant life of Gregory written by a nun inWhitby, 8thC
Introduction toPastoral Rule
Issues with clergy in West during time of Gregory Great: crassMoney and power were in ChurchTax and military benefits for clergyIssues with clergy: intellectualChurch controlled educationChurch (monasteries) places of quiet refuge
Pastoral Rule,Government of Souls: the Art of Arts
First published as a short work in 593; also translated into GreekKey theme: Pastor must meet his people where they are (condescension) and draw them up toward salvationTo do this, the Pastor must be a man of personal wisdom and spiritualityPastor is a doctor of soulsModel for entire church is relation between abbot andmonksDivision ofPastoral RulePart I Who should (and should not) be pastorsPart II How Pastors should lead their livesPart III Teaching and PreachingPart IV Greatest temptation for Pastors: pride
Pastoral RulePart I
Pastors must live the life they preachDistinction between studying and learning something ‘academically’ and being able to live itPastor must follow example of Christ in humility; be careful not to be like Saul and DavidA man endowed with great gifts should not decline becoming a pastor; in so doing he also deprives himself of the advantage of his giftsMan with ability to rule should not be content to hide in monastery
Pastoral RulePart II
Life of pastor set apart from flockSymbolism of priest’s vestmentsPastor should transfer to himself the infirmities of others even as his contemplation leads him to GodExample of Paul’s condescending love to those who are marriedMoses gong in and out of tabernacleHumility of pastors: joy should not be in ruling over men, but in helping them to salvationPastor must continue to develop his own inner life, even as he is occupied with external affairsVices can sometimes masquerade as virtuesPastors must study Scripture every day to renew their heart
Pastoral RulePart III
Pastor must distinguish among his listeners“must touch the hearts of his hearers by using one and the same doctrine, but not by giving to all one and the same exhortation”Series of admonishments; longest part of Rule
Pastoral RulePart IV
While restoring others to health, the pastor must not neglect his own healthGreatest problem for pastor is pridePastor must not be secure in his self-confidenceThe pastor must not be deceived by success“when the wealth of virtues flatters us, the eye of the soul should turn its gaze on its infirmities”
Gregorian Liturgical Reforms
Distinctive Roman liturgical practices started in 5thC with Popes Leo and GelasiusBut practices were local depending on bishopGregory collected and ordered various liturgical prayers and hymnsGregorian SacramentaryGregorian AntiphonaryGregory’s Roman Sacramentary quickly became standard throughout Europe in Roman Catholic ChurchGregorian Chant became the standard music of Roman Catholic ChurchEmphasis on Mass as sacrifice
Gregorythe Great,Pastoral Rule,Books I –III, selections available on BC Course ReservesAugustine, “Sermon 354” (SKIP)Instead read handout fromInstructing Beginners in the FaithPrepare Paper #8





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Lecture 1_ Introduction - MIT