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Language and Communication Disorders

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Language and Communication Disorders
Process of Language DevelopmentLanguage Disorders
Definitions
Speech:the forming, sequencing, and articulation of oral communicationLanguage:the communication of ideasin writing, speaking, or other symbol system
Communication Disorders
Speech disordersLanguage disordersIn combination
Speech Disorder
voice impairmentarticulationuse (accuracy) in making soundsfluency in making soundsThese students do not TALK well
Voice
Biologicalgrowths and defects of the larynxnerve damage/defects of the larynxcleft palatecognitive impairment (dsyarthria, apraxia)Non-biologicalfaulty learning
Articulation
word production errorslispingenunciation
Fluency
Pervasive and frequent interruptions in speech flowwrong order (cimannom)inappropriate stress patterns (pauses)stutteringfillers (uh)
Language Disorder
Comprehension AND/OR Use of Languageaberrant or poorly developed ability forspoken, written, or other form of communicationform, function, or content of languageThese students do not USE OR UNDERSTAND language well.
How many students have this problem?
Estimates vary and are hard to make. Why?Age variabilitySubject to social interaction and historyLanguage development theories varyExpectmore speech problems (6- 15%)fewer language disorders (@1%)
Language Development
Influenced by social interaction,maturation, andcognitive development
Social interaction
Adult speech patterns influence child speech patternsLanguage demands of child’s environment will influence speed and direction of language development
Maturation:
Language is developmental in nature0 to 3 months > “cooing”babbling > 4-6 months1st words > 8-10 monthsword play @ 2 yearsspeech fluency 2-5 years
Cognitive development
Biophysical influencesearly nutritionbirth experiencesHereditary influences
Specific Language Impairment
no identifiable causeI.E., SLI is not due to MR, LD, TBI, or AutismControversialMarked by perceptual, attentive, symbolic, and syntactic delays
Expressive Language Delay
significant lag in expressive language developmentdelays in producing developmentally expected utterances, words, and/or communicationconventionsNot a result of non-native language learning
Receptive Language Delay
Significant lag in understanding what has been saiddelays in receiving (understanding) developmentally expected utterances, words, and/or communication conventionsNot as a result of non-native language learning
Language Learning Disability
Significant lack of mechanical uses of spoken and/or written languagesyntax, semantics, and phonologySignificant lack in pragmatic languageproducing conversation/explanation, etc.understanding conversation/explanation, etc.
Speech Disorders
voicearticulationfluency
Voice
Biologicalgrowths and defects of the larynxnerve damage/defects of the larynxcleft palatecognitive impairment (dsyarthria, apraxia)Non-biologicalfaulty learning
Articulation
word production errorslispingenunciation
Fluency
Pervasive and frequent interruptions in speech flowwrong order (cimannom)inappropriate stress patterns (pauses)stutteringfillers (uh)
Educational Interventionsfor Speech and Language
Early interventionAmount of talking to children a key predictorNonverbal dialogues with parentsPre-schoolteaching conversation skillsIn natural environments with teacher collaboration
Teaching Techniques
Appropriate modelingMaximizing communication opportunitiesModifying instruction

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Language and Communication Disorders