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Hazardous%20Materials

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Hazardous MaterialsCFR 1910.101-.126
Safety & Health Consultation
Hazardous Materials[1910.101–126]
2
CompressedGases– HandlingStorageandUse
SprayBooth– AirVelocity
Class ILiquids– Dispensing
SUBPART H
SprayAreas–CleaningwithNon-sparking Tools
SprayBooth– FiltersProtectedbySprinklers
Compressed Gases
Safety & Health Consultation
1910.101(b)
Thein-planthandling, storage, and utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, railtank cars,or motor vehicle cargo tanks shall be in accordance withCompressed Gas Association (CGA) PamphletP-1-1965,which is incorporated by reference as specified in 1910.6
Compressed Gas Cylinders
3.1.14,Never tamper with the safety relief devices in valves or cylinders3.1.15,Never attempt to repair or to alter cylinders, valves, or safety relief devices
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CGA Pamphlet P-1-1965
Compressed Gas Cylinders
3.1.16,Never use cylinders as rollers, supports, or for any other purpose than to contain the contents as received
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Big &heavy
CGA Pamphlet P-1-1965
Compressed Gas Cylinders
3.1.17,Keep cylinder valve closed at all times, except when cylinder is in active use3.1.18,Notify cylinder owner if any condition might have permitted any foreign substance to enter the cylinder or valve:Provide details of incidentProvide the cylinder serial number
Safety & Health Consultation
CGA Pamphlet P-1-1965
Compressed Gas Cylinders
3.1.19,Do not place cylinders where they might become part of an electric circuitWhen cylinders are used in conjunction with electric welding, precautions must be taken against accidentally grounding cylinders and allowing them to be burned by electric welding arc
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CGA Pamphlet P-1-1965
Moving Cylinders
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CGA Pamphlet P-1-1965
3.2.2,Do not lift cylinders by the cap3.2.3,Never drop cylinders nor permit them to strike against each other or against other surfaces violently
Moving Cylinders
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3.2.4,Never handle a cylinder with a lifting magnet3.2.5,Avoid dragging or sliding cylinders
Lifting magnet
CGA Pamphlet P-1-1965
3.2.6,Use suitable hand truck, fork truck, roll platform or similar device with cylinder firmly secured for transporting and unloading
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Moving Cylinders
!
CGA Pamphlet P-1-1965
Storing Cylinders
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3.3.6,Do not store cylinders near highly flammable substances such as oil, gasoline or combustible waste
CGA Pamphlet P-1-1965
Storing Cylinders
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3.3.8,Do not store cylinders near elevators or gangways, or in locations where heavy moving objects may strike or fall on them
LP gas storednear exit
CGA Pamphlet P-1-1965
Withdrawing Cylinder Content
3.4.2,If cylinder content is not identified by marking, return cylinder to the supplier without using
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CGA Pamphlet P-1-1965
Withdrawing Cylinder Content
3.4.4,Before using a cylinder, be sure it is properly supported to prevent it from being knocked over3.4.5,Suitable pressure regulating devices must be used
Safety & Health Consultation
CGA Pamphlet P-1-1965
3.4.6,Never force connections3.4.7,Where compressed gas cylinders are connected to a manifold, all related equipment, such as regulators, must be of proper design
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Withdrawing Cylinder Content
CGA Pamphlet P-1-1965
3.4.8,Do not mix regulators, gages, hoses and other appliances provided for use with a particular gas or group of gases with incompatible materials/gases
Safety & Health Consultation
Withdrawing Cylinder Content
CGA Pamphlet P-1-1965
Safe Work Practices
3.4.9Opencylinder slowlyPoint valve opening away from yourself & othersNever use wrenches or tools except those provided by the supplier or approved by the gas manufacturerAvoid the use of a wrench on a valve equipped with a handwheel
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CGA Pamphlet P-1-1965
Safe Work Practices
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CGA Pamphlet P-1-1965
3.4.9Neverhammer on the valve wheelFrozen, corroded valves; contact the supplierUse check valves if cylinder is apt to be contaminated by feedback of materialsBefore removing a regulator, close the cylinder valve and release all the pressure from the regulator
Flammable Gases
3.5Indoor cylinder storageWell protectedWell insulatedDryTwenty (20) feet from flammable or combustible materials
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CGA Pamphlet P-1-1965
Flammable Gases
3.5.1,Do not store cylinders near highly flammable solvents, combustible waste material and similar substances, or near unprotected electrical connections, gas flames or other sources of ignition3.5.2,Never use a flame to detect flammable gas leaks; use soapy water
Safety & Health Consultation
CGA Pamphlet P-1-1965
Poison Gases
3.6.1,Personnel handling and using poison gases should have available for immediate use gas masks or self-contained breathing apparatus approved by U.S. Bureau of Mines* for the particular service desired*NOTE: This approval for respirators has been up-dated to the requirements of NIOSH (CGA P-1 2000)
Safety & Health Consultation
CGA Pamphlet P-1-1965
Acetylene
Cylinders: In-plant transfer, handling, storage, and utilization of acetylene in cylinders shall be in accordance with Compressed Gas Association PamphletG-1-1966
Safety & Health Consultation
1910.102
Case Report
“A fitter with a work van left an E size Oxygen and Acetylene cylinder on the back seat of a Toyota dual cab over the weekend. The Acetylene cylinder must not have fully closed and a small leak occurred. Over the weekend the Acetylene had accumulated in the van. ”
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Case Report
“On the Monday morning the fitter approached the van and opened the door, a large explosion took place. We believe the ignition could have been caused by either the internal light, the automatic door control or by a mobile phone which was on the front seat of the van.The fellow was also a smoker. He has damage to his ear drums and facial damage. As you can see by the attached photos he was very lucky.
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Dangerous Situation
Flammability limits:Lower: 2.5%  Upper: 100% – an extremely wide range!Use or store only in a well-ventilated area. (Inside of the truck is not well ventilated.)NFPA RATINGS: Health 1; Flammability 4; Reactivity3
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Flammable and CombustibleLiquidsCFR 1910.106
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Introduction
The two primary hazards associated with flammable and combustible liquids areexplosionandfireSafe handling and storage of flammable liquids requires the use of approved equipment and practices per OSHAstandards
1910.106
Safety & Health Consultation
Definitions
Flash pointmeans the minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off enough vapor to form an ignitable mixtureIn general, the lower the flash point, the greater the hazardFlammable liquidshave flash points below 100oF, and are more dangerous than combustible liquids, since they may be ignited at room temperatureCombustible liquidshave flash points at or above 100oFAlthough combustible liquids have higher flash points than flammable liquids, they can pose serious fire and/or explosion hazards when heated
1910.106(a)(14)
Definitions
Safety & Health Consultation
FlashPointFlash point means the minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off vapor within a test vessel in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid. The flash point is normally an indication of susceptibility to ignition.
1910.106(a)(14)
Definitions
CombustibleLiquidCombustible liquid means any liquid having a flash point at above 100°F (37.8 °C).Combustible liquids are divided into two classes:Class IIClass III
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1910.106(a)(18)
Definitions
Class IILiquidsClass II liquids shall include those with a flash point at or above 100°F (37.8°C) and below 140°F (60°C)
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1910.106(a)(18)(i)
Definitions
Class IIILiquidsClass III liquids shall include those with flash points at or above 140°F (60°C).Class III are divided into two classes:Class IIIAClass IIIB
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1910.106(a)(18)(ii)
Definitions
Class IIIALiquidsClass III liquids shall include those with flash points at or above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93.3°C)
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1910.106(a)(18)(ii)(a)
Definitions
Class IIIBLiquidsClass IIIB liquids shall include those with a flash point at or above 200°F (93.3°C).This section does not regulate Class IIIB liquids.
Safety & Health Consultation
1910.106(a)(18)(ii)(b)
Definitions
Note:When a combustible liquid is heated to within 30°F (16.7°C) of its flash point, it shall be handled in accordance with the requirements for the next lower class of liquids
Safety & Health Consultation
1910.106(a)(18)(iii)
Definitions
FlammableLiquidFlammable liquid means any liquid having a flash pointbelow 100 °F(37.8 °C)Flammable liquids shall be known as Class I liquids
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1910.106(19)
Definitions
Class I liquids are divided into three classes:Class1AClass1BClass 1C
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1910.106(19)
Definitions
Class 1AClass 1A shall include liquids having flash points below 73 °F (22.8°C) and having a boiling point below 100 °F (37.8°C)Examples: Ethyl Ether, Isopropyl Chloride, Pentane
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1910.106(19)(i)
Definitions
Class 1BLiquidsClass 1B shall include liquids having flash points below 73°F (22.8°C) and having a boiling point at or above 100°F (37.8°C)Example: Acetone, Gasoline, Toluene
Safety & Health Consultation
1910.106(19)(ii)
Definitions
Class1CClass 1C shall include liquids having flash points atorabove 73°F (22.8°C) and below 100°F (37.8°C)Examples: Amyl Alcohol, Naphtha, Xylene
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1910.106(19)(iii)
Safety & Health Consultation
Classes of Flammableand Combustible Liquids
IIIA
II
IC
IA
IB
200
140
100
73
Flash Point (oF)
100
Boiling Point (oF)
Combustible(FP > 100oF)
Flammable(FP < 100oF)
1910.106(a)(18)1910.106(a)(19)
Safety & Health Consultation
Classes of Some Flammable Liquids
CLASS IACLASS IBCLASS IC
Common Name Flash Point (oF)
Ethyl Ether -49Gasoline -45Methyl Ethyl Ketone 21Toluene 40Xylene 81-115Turpentine 95
Flammable(Explosive)Limits
Flammable RangeThe range of a combustible vapor or gas-air mixture between the upper and lower flammable limits.Also, known as the “explosive range.”
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Lower Flammable LimitThe lowest concentration at which a combustible gas forms a flammable mixture.Below the LFL there is too little combustible fuel to sustain a flame.Also, known as “Lower Explosive Limit or LEL.”
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Flammable(Explosive)Limits
Upper FlammableLimitThe highest concentration at which a combustible gas forms a flammable mixture.Above the UFL there is too little oxygen to sustain a flame. Better known as “too rich” to burn.Also, known as “Upper Explosive Limit or UEL.”
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Flammable(Explosive)Limits
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Program Components
Control of ignition sourcesProper storageFire controlSafe handling
A good plan for safe use of flammable and combustible liquids contains at least these components:
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Sources of Ignition
Open flamesSmokingStatic electricityCutting and weldingHot surfacesElectrical and mechanical sparksLightning
Must take adequate precautions to prevent ignition of flammable vapors. Some sources of ignition include:
1910.106(e)(6)(i)
Safety & Health Consultation
Static Electricity
Generated when a fluid flows through a pipe or from an opening into a tankMain hazards are fire and explosion from sparks containing enough energy to ignite flammable vaporsBonding or grounding of flammable liquid containers is necessary to prevent static electricity from causing a spark
Sources of Ignition
Class I liquids shall not be dispensed into containers unless the nozzle and container are electrically interconnected
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1910.106(e)(6)(ii)
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Bonding
Physically connect two conductive objects together with a bond wire to eliminate a difference in static charge potential between themMust provide a bond wire between containers during flammable liquid filling operations, unless a metallic path between them is otherwise present
1910.106(e)(6)(ii)
Safety & Health Consultation
Grounding
Eliminates a difference in static charge potential between conductive objects and groundAlthoughbondingwill eliminate a difference in potential between objects, it willnoteliminate a difference in potential between these objects and earth unless one of the objects is connected to earth with a ground wire
1910.106(e)(6)(ii)
Safety & Health Consultation
Ventilation
Always provide adequate ventilation to reduce the potential for ignition of flammable vapors.
1910.106(a)(31)
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Storage Fundamentals
Identify incompatible chemicals – checkthe SafetyData SheetIsolate and separate incompatible materialsIsolate by storing in another area or roomDegree of isolation depends on quantities, chemical properties and packagingSeparate by storing in same area or room, but apart from each other
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Storage of Flammable and Combustible Liquids
Storage must not limit the use of exits, stairways, or areas normally used for the safe egress of peopleIn office occupancies:Storage prohibited except that which is required for maintenance and operation of equipmentStorage must be in:closed metal containers inside a storage cabinet, orsafety cans, oran inside storage room
Inside storage room
1910.106(d)(5)(i)1910.106(d)(5)(iii)
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Safety Cans for Storage and Transfer
Approved container of not more than 5 gallons capacitySpring-closing lid and spout coverSafely relieves internal pressure when exposed to fire
1910.106(a)(29)
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Flame Arrester Screen
Prevents fire flashback into can contentsDouble wire-mesh constructionLarge surface area provides rapid dissipation of heat from fire so that vapor temperature inside can remains below ignition point
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Storage Cabinets
Not more than 60 gal of Class I and/or Class II liquids, or not more than 120 gal of Class III liquids permitted in a cabinetMust be conspicuously labeled, “Flammable - Keep Fire Away”Doors on metal cabinets must have a three-point lock (top, side, and bottom), and the door sill must be raised at least 2 inches above the bottom of the cabinet
1910.106(d)(3)(i)1910.106(d)(3)(ii)1910.106(d)(3)(ii)(a)
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Fire Control
Suitable fire control devices, such as small hose or portable fire extinguishers must be available where flammable or combustible liquids are storedOpen flames and smoking must not be permitted in these storage areasMaterials which react with water must not be stored in the same room with flammable or combustible liquids
1910.106(d)(7)(i)1910.106(d)(7)(iii)1910.106(d)(7)(iv)
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Transferring Flammable Liquids
Through a closed piping systemFrom safety cansBy gravity through an approved self-closing safety faucetBy means of a safety pump
Since there is a sizeable risk whenever flammable liquids are handled, OSHA allows only four methods for transferring these materials:
1910.106(e)(2)(iv)(d)
Safety & Health Consultation
Self-Closing Safety Faucet
Bonding wire between drum and containerGrounding wire between drum and groundSafety vent in drum
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Safety Pump
Faster and safer than using a faucetSpills less likelyNo separate safety vents in drum requiredInstalled directly in drum bung openingSome pump hoses have integral bonding wires
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Waste and Residue
Waste drum with disposal funnel
Safety disposal can
Oily-waste can (self-closing lid)
Combustible waste and residue must be kept to a minimum, stored in covered metal receptacles and disposed of daily.
1910.106(e)(9)(iii)
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Safe Handling Fundamentals
Carefully read the manufacturer’s label on the flammable liquid container before storing or using itPractice good housekeeping in flammable liquid storage areasClean up spills immediately, then place the cleanup rags in a covered metal containerOnly use approved metal safety containers or original manufacturer’s container to store flammable liquids
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Safe Handling Fundamentals
Keep the containers closed when not in use and store away from exits or passagewaysUse flammable liquids only where there is plenty of ventilationKeep flammable liquids away from ignition sources such as open flames, sparks, smoking, cutting, welding, etc.
Spray Finishing1910.107
Safety & Health Consultation
Definitions
Aerated SolidPowdersAeratedpowders shall mean any powdered material used as a coating material which shall be fluidized within a container by passing air uniformly from below. It is common practice to fluidize such materials to form a fluidized powder bed and then dip the part to be coated into the bed in a manner similar to that used in liquid dipping. Such beds are also used as sources for powder spray operation
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1910.107(a)(1)
Definitions
SprayingAreaAny area in which dangerous quantities of flammable vapors or mists, or combustible residues, dusts, or deposits are present due to the operation of spraying processes.
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1910.107(a)(2)
Definitions
SprayBoothA power-ventilated structure provided to enclose or accommodate a spraying operation to confine and limit the escape of spray, vapor, and residue, and to safely conduct or direct them to an exhaust system
Safety & Health Consultation
1910.107(a)(3)
Definitions
Waterwash sprayboothA spray booth equipped with a water washing system designed to minimize dusts or residues entering exhaust ducts and to permit the recovery of overspray finishingmaterial
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1910.107(a)(4)
Definitions
Dry sprayboothA spray booth not equipped with a water washing system as described in subparagraph (4) of this paragraph.
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1910.107(a)(5)
Definitions
Dry spray boothA dry spray booth may be equipped withdistribution or baffle plates to promote an even flow of air through the booth or cause the deposit of overspray before it enters the exhaust duct; oroverspray dry filters to minimize dusts or residues entering exhaust ducts; orwhere dry powders are being sprayed, with powder collection systems so arranged in the exhaust to capture oversprayed material.
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1910.107(a)(5)(i) – (v)
Separation of Operations
Each spray booth shall be separated from other operations by:not less than 3feet, orby a greater distance, orby a partition or wall to reduce danger
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1910.107(b)(8)
Sources of Ignition
There will be no open flame or spark producing equipment in any spray area nor within 20 feetSpace heating appliances, steam pipes, or hot surfaces shall not be located in the spray area
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1910.107(c)(2) – (3)
Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous ChemicalsCFR 1910.119
Safety & Health Consultation
Why Did OSHA Develop PSM?
Bhopal, India (1984)2,000 deathsIsocyanate releasePasadena, TX (1989)23 deaths, 132 injuriesPetroleum explosionCincinnati, OH (1990)2 deathsExplosionSterlington, LA (1991)8 deaths, 128 injuriesChemical release
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In 1991, OSHA and EPA respectively, Released the Standards, PSM & RMP that Applies to Those Companies that are Affected by The Standards.
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Why Did OSHA Develop PSM?
ProcessSafety Managementis a regulation, promulgated by OSHA, intended to prevent an incident like the 1984 Bhopal DisasterAnd…to Prevent Release of:Toxic,Reactive,Flammable, orExplosive chemicals
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Why Did OSHA Develop PSM?
Covered Facilities
Those Who Use Chemicals in Appendix A: A List of highly hazardous chemicals, toxics and reactive (Mandatory). Contains a listing of toxic and reactive highly hazardous chemicals which present a potential for a catastrophic event at or above the thresholdquantityExamplesChemical ThresholdQuantity (TQ)AnhydrousAmmonia 10,000 lbs.Chlorine1,000 lbs.
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1910.119(a)(1)
A process which involves a flammable liquid or gas (as defined in 1910.1200(c) of this part) on-site in one location, in a quantity of 10,000 pounds (4535.9 kg) or more
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1910.119(a)(1)
Covered Facilities
Process Safety Information
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Pertaining to the hazards of the highly hazardous chemicals:Hazards of the processTechnology of the process; and,The equipment in the process
1910.119(d)
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Process Safety Information
1910.119(d)
Toxicity information*;Permissible exposure limits;Physical data;Reactivity data:Corrosivity data;Thermal and chemical stability data; andHazardous effects of inadvertent mixing of different materials that could foreseeably occur
*Note: Material Safety Data Sheets may be used to comply with this requirement to the extent they contain the information required
Safety & Health Consultation
Summary
The two primary hazards associated with flammable and combustible liquids areexplosionandfireSafe handling and storage of flammable liquids requires the use of approved equipment and practices per OSHA standardsAn excellent reference on this topic is National Fire Protection Association Standard No. 30,Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code
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Hazardous%20Materials