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The Middle Ages in Europe - Socorro Independent School ...

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The Middle Ages in Europe(476 A.D. – 1400’s)
Chapter 8
Page 1: Essential Questions
What were the main characteristics of the Byzantine Empire? (Pages 2, 4)How was Western Europe affected by the collapse of Rome? (Page 6)How did the system of feudalism restore order to Western Europe? (Pages 8, 10)How did religious beliefs shape life-styles in this period? (Page 12)How did English political traditions contribute to our American system of government? (Page 14)
Page 3:Key Terminology
Byzantine Empire 9) Knights 17) Thomas AquinasConstantinople 10) Serfs 18) Magna CartaEastern Orthodoxy 11) ManorCode of Justinian 12)ManorialismMiddle Ages 13) 3-Field SystemCharlemagne 14) Roman CatholicismFeudalism 15) The PopeLords 16) Crusades
Page 2:Introduction
Byzantine Empire merged with Constantinople, lasting 1K years—Emperor Justinian used Roman laws to create new legal codeAfter fall of Roman Empire, Europe fell into period of chaos know as the Dark Ages—invaders kept cities in chaos—cities became ruined and weak—the learning of the ancient world was lostAs a result, Europeans developed feudalism—the Catholic church preserved learning & became most power institution in Europe
Introduction: (continuation)
St. Augustine emphasized the role of faithSt. Thomas Aquinas believed Christian teachings were compatible with the exercise of reasonChristians and Muslims fought for the Holy Land—The Crusades
Page 2:A Byzantine Culture Emerges
330 A.D. Emperor Constantine moved the empire’s capital to Byzantium, renamed it ConstantinopleConstantinople was surrounded by 3 sides of water and had thick walls—almost impossible to attackWestern half of Roman Empire collapsed in 400 A.D. –Eastern half survived another 1K yrs.Imperial system of govt./led by an emperor
Official language was Latin but was changed to GreekDid not follow Roman Catholicism, they were Eastern Orthodox ChristianEastern Orthodox: does recognize Pope as head of church, had ownpatriarch/leader, decorated churches withicons/images of Jesus and saints
Byzantines Develop a StrongCulture
Church ofHagiaSophiaSchools taught ancient Greek textsUsed gold, silver, and ivory for art/expensive materials!Known for exquisite art and elongated tilemosiacs
Under Emperor Justinian (527-565 A.D.)
Conquered the old Roman EmpireJustinian’s Code: organized Roman laws into a single code/textSpecial religious laws, all people had to be E. Orthodox
Page 4: Reasons 4 survival of Byzantine Empire
Classical Culture: rich infusion of Greek, Roman, Christian, and Middle Eastern culturesLocation: major city 4 trade:silks and spices from East, furs from RussiaStrong Central Govt.: powerful emperors with strong administrators and single set of lawsLarge Army:taxed merchants and peasants to support army
Decline of Byzantine Empire
In constant battle with:Slavs andAvarsto the north,Persians to the east, Islam/Muslims to the south, Muslims took most of lands in the MiddleEastSeljuk Turks defeated Byzantine army in 1071Crusaders attacked city in 1204By 1440’s empire reduced to small area around Constantinople1453 Constantinople conquered by Ottoman Turks
Western Europe in Turmoil
The Barbarian Invasions: Romans considered foreigners “barbarians”, Germanic tribes: Goths, Vandals,Lombards,Burgundians, and FranksIn 300 A.D. warlike tribe-Huns attack Roman EmpireVisigoths sack Rome in 410
Germanic TribesCreated Kingdoms
Angles and Saxons/EnglandVisigoths/SpainLombards/N.ItalyFranks/Gaulstake France
Page 5:Byzantine Empire Influences
Read page 106: Influence on Russia segmentWrite 1-2 short paragraphs summarizing how the Byzantine Empire influenced Russia’seconomy,politics/government,culture, andreligion.Be sure to address all components of this assignment!
Page 6: Constant Warfare Creates Chaos(Leads to Feudalism)
Traveling became unsafeBridges/roads fell apartCities/towns abandonedCriminals roamed freeRich families moved to fortified homes/castles in countrysideFood shortages
The Rise of the Franks
Franksestab. largest Germanic kingdomCharles Martelunites Franks(732 A.D.)Battle of Tours -Martel stops advance of Islam from Spain into France(751 A.D.)Martel’s son, Pepin-seized power and now King of FranksFrankish kings created powerful army by granting land to nobles in exchange of service in King’s army with their knights =Feudal System
Reign of Charlemagne
Pepin’s son, Charlemagne, became king in 768Expanded practice of giving land to nobles in exchange for loyalty and servicesNobles gave land to knights in exchange for protectionPeasants gave up their rights to their local lords for protectionServices included providing firewood, livestock, crops
Charlemagne’s kingdom included: France, Germany, Holland, Belgium,N.ItalyUsed $$ 2 attract scholars to his palace4children of nobilityCrowned “Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire”After his death, the empire was divided among his sons
Page 8: Europe’s New Threats
Slavs and Magyars from east invaded Germany, France,ItalyMuslims from N. Africa attack S. Italy800-1000 A.D. Vikings- fierce warriors from north/Scandinavia attacked coasts of W. Euro. (England & France)Spread fear and destruction
Page 7:Feudalism Social Structure
Use notes found on pages 8 and 10 in ISNCreate a graphic organizer/chart featuring the social system ofFeudalismBe sure to incorporate into your graphic organizer the relationships between following people and terms :lords, nobles, knights, serfs, fief, manor,You may wish to examine pages 110-111 in textbook
Feudal Society
In order to protect themselves and provide basic needs, people adoptedfeudalismKing would give land (fief) to noble (vassal) in exchange for loyalty and serviceVassal would give piece of land to servants in exchange for services and food
Feudalism: Social
Strict class structure based on control of land and military powerPeople born as serf/peasant farmers, knight, or lords could not change social positionsLords who had large pieces of land had a large army of knights
Feudalism: Political
Leading nobles controlled political lifeBuilt large castles for protectionKing needed lord’s knights for his armyNobles fought against each other and against kingCivil wars were frequent and powerful nobles would take land
Page 9:Feudalism
Summarize: How did the system ofFedualismrestore order to Western Europe after the Fall of the Roman Empire?Length: 1-2 paragraphs
Page 10:Feudalism: Economic
Most people lived in manorsEach manor produced its own food, clothing, shelterIn England alone, 9K manors aloneSerfs gave their lord a part of their harvest, in return they would get land to live on and protectionLord passed laws, required labor, acted as judgeSerfs were property, bound to the land and their lordsSerfs could almost be considered slaves
Farming in the Middle Ages
Farmers used a 3-Field system: 2 fields used to farm, 1 for summer, 1 for winter, 1 left to recover fertility/fallowFarm animals were small and fewBad weather and poor harvest could lead to famine or death
Peasant Life Styles
Produced the food neededWorked long hours, most on the landMost were farmers some had other jobs(millers, blacksmiths, tavern owners)Lived on farms or near cities on a lord’s manorCottage house had no floors, bed was made of hay, pigs and animals lived inside houseWater was drawn from a well or stream
Women in the Middle Ages
Roles were determined by Catholic ChurchSuppose to be obedient to menGave birth to large # of children/many died in infancyLife-styles varied according to social statusNoble women spent most time praying and domestic chores(some would receive and education)Peasant women worked in fields plus take care of house, husband, children and animals
Page 12:The Age of Faith
Catholic Church single most powerful organization in W. EuropePope: head of the church, governed cardinals, bishops, and other important church officialsChurch controlled large amounts of land in Euro.Possessed monasteries, abbeys, convents
Page 11:Two Christian Thinkers
Read pages 112-113 in textbookWhy do you think the teachings ofSaint AugustineandSaint Thomas Aquinaswere important to people in the Middle East?Length: 2 paragraphs: one paragraph addressing each saint
Reasons for the Church’s Power
The Role of Faith: people very religious, church represented God and had power to send people to heaven/hellPower and Wealth: nobles gave land to church when they died hoping to go to heaven,church largest landowner in Europe, collected $ throughtithes/church taxCenter of Learning:church officials usually only people able to read and write, rulers depended on church because they were educated
The Crusades Holy War vs. Muslims
1000 A.D. Seljuk Turks/Muslims took control of the Holy Land (Jerusalem), drove out the Christians1095 Pope Urban IIreceived plea from Byzantine Emperor with the Muslim invasionChurch called all Christians to Europe to unite and recapture the Holy LandVolunteers were promised salvation
“Crusade”- means “war of the cross”Flag was a red cross with a white bannerMany participants died of hunger or disease on way 2 Holy LandSeveral crusades were fought for next 200 years
Page 13:The Crusades
Using ISN notes on page 12 and textbook page 115Create a recruitment poster featuring Pope Urban II call for the CrusadesPoster should include relevant images, wording, and color
Page 14:English Political Traditions
England developed traditions of liberty and limited self-government1215 Magna CartaEnglish Bill of Rights
Page 14:1215 Magna Carta
King JohnII forcedto signagreement by noblesCouldn’t takeaway a free man’spropertyCouldn’t imprisona man w/outlegal proceduresFreemen had right to trial byjuryKing needed consentof council of nobles for new taxesSignificance: helped establish Parliament, King must now consult other branches of government, does not have unlimited power

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The Middle Ages in Europe - Socorro Independent School ...