Coherence and Expansiveness
Logical Flow on the Global Level
Transition signals and conjunctions do most of the work of linking ideas logically:Transition signals: In addition, In contrast, however, on the other hand, conversely, Firstly, Secondly, Next, Finally,…Conjunctions:Coordinators:for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.Subordinators:after, as, since, when, because, as often as, in order that, so little that, unless, although, whereas; who, which, that; if, whether, how much…Conjunctive adverbs:also, in addition, for example, similarly, subsequently…Correlative conjunctions:both…and; not only…but also; neither…nor; whether…or.
Grammatical coherence is achieved through the use ofRepetition and pronoun, synonymous and antonymous substitutionEllipsisParallelismAnaphoric reference
Three paragraphs from Nelson Mandela’s‘I am prepared to die’ speech
At the outset, I want to say thatthe suggestion made by the state in its openingthatthe struggleinSouth Africais under the influence of foreigners or communists is wholly incorrect.I have done whatever I did, both as an individual and asa leaderofmy people,because ofmy experience inSouth Africaand my ownproudlyfeltAfrican background, and notbecause ofwhat anyoutsidermight have said.In my youthinthe TranskeiI listened to the elders ofmy tribetellingstoriesofthe old days. Amongstthe talesthey related to me were those of wars fought byour ancestorsin defence of the fatherland. The names ofDingane andBambatha,Hintsaand Makana,SqungathiandDalasile,Moshoeshoeand Sekhukhune, werepraisedasthe prideand the glory of the entireAfrican nation. [I hopedthenthat life might offer me the opportunityto servemy peopleand makemy own humble contributiontotheir freedom struggle] [This] is what has motivated me inall that I have donein relation tothe charges made against me in this case.[Having said this], I must dealimmediatelyand at some length withthe questionofsabotage.Someof the things so far told tothe Courtare true andsomeare untrue. I do nothowever, deny that Iplannedsabotage. I did notplanit in a spirit of recklessness, norbecauseI have any love for violence. Iplannedit asa result ofa calm and sober assessment ofthe political situation thathad arisen after many years oftyranny, exploitation, and oppressionofmy peopleby the whites.
Going into detail… (an example)
The Provisional IRA (henceforth IRA) is the largest and best known paramilitary organisation in Northern Ireland. While it has attacked the security forces, political and judicial figures, Loyalists, economic and civilian targets as part of an overall 'military’ strategy (O'Brien, 1993) its members have also 'policed' Republican areas against antisocial crime through punishments and banishments. A distinct section within the IRA known as the 'civil administration' has been given this task (O'Doherty, 1998). This system requires a considerable logistical and infrastructural commitment with personnel designated to hear complaints, investigate, make recommendations and carry out the punishment attacks. It became somewhatroutinisedduring the conflict with designated buildings where complaints were made, relationships established with professionals seeking to make interventions regarding those under threat (discussed below), victims being aware of the threat and occasional highly-publicised accounts of victims or their families arranging to arrive at agreed destinations to be punished.(‘Policing and Praxis’, p. 361)