Follow
Publications: 84 | Followers: 0

Elements of Rhetoric - David-Glen Smith

Publish on Category: Birds 0

Elements of Rhetoric
7/9/2014
English 1301: Composition & Rhetoric I || D. Glen Smith, instructor
Definition
Rhetoric—is the art of using language tocommunicate effectivelyand has been a major part of Westerneducation sincethe Ancient Greeks.
English 1301: Composition & Rhetoric I || D. Glen Smith, instructor
7/9/2014
Appeals in Writing
Three Types of Appeals ExistThese are rhetorical devices used to enhance observations in research papers:A. logos— (rational)B. pathos— (emotional )C. ethos— (ethical)
English 1301: Composition & Rhetoric I || D. Glen Smith, instructor
7/9/2014
Purposes
Theseare similar to the differentpurposesfor papers:inform, persuade, speculate, entertain,incite,instigateAll three of these purposes (logos, pathos, ethos) can be merged into one paper; the longer the work, the greater the necessity for multiple intentions.Likewise, just as one essay can fulfill multiple purposes,one essay can use multiple appeals; the purpose of the work controls the type of appeal in use.
English 1301: Composition & Rhetoric I || D. Glen Smith, instructor
7/9/2014
Pathos (emotional)
•Whenusing apersuasive purpose, anemotionalappeal works best.Emotional, personal writing produces a reaction from the audience.In this fashion, for personal essays, pathos works best to connect with readers.Whenanalyzing an emotional appeal, look carefully at the writer’semotionally chargedwords and the nature of their use.
English 1301: Composition & Rhetoric I || D. Glen Smith, instructor
7/9/2014
Pathos (emotional)
Whenreading an emotional appeal,be sure to determine:• Whatemotion is the writer wanting you to feel?• Whatmanner isfigurativelanguage being used?•Isthe audience being manipulated?• Isthe emotion consistent with the purpose?• Isthe emotion appropriate to the audience, the situation,andthe subject?• Isthe emotionadominant part of theessay (which shows abias)ordo rational arguments appear themainfocus?• Isthe emotional material usedto clarify a complexargument?
English 1301: Composition & Rhetoric I || D. Glen Smith, instructor
7/9/2014
Pathos (emotional)
Some theorists believe emotional defenses are stronger than logical defenses.• When used appropriately the audiencefeels sympathy to the writer’s cause.• However, it is best to avoidloaded languageoremotionally charged phrases.• If used incorrectly, the material showncan be seen as sentimental and forced.• If over-used, the audience may feelmanipulated.• Do not over exaggerate in order to builda sense of empathy.
English 1301: Composition & Rhetoric I || D. Glen Smith, instructor
7/9/2014
Pathos (emotional)
Example of pathos-driven material:The wrath of God is like great waters that are dammed for the present; they increase more and more, and rise higher and higher, till an outlet is given; and the longer the stream is stopped, the more rapid and mighty is its course, when once it is let loose. It is true, that judgment against your evil works has not been executed hitherto; the floods of God's vengeance have been withheld; but your guilt in the mean time is constantly increasing, and you are every day treasuring up more wrath; the waters are constantly rising, and waxing more and more mighty; and there is nothing but the mere pleasure of God, that holds the waters back, that are unwilling to be stopped, and press hard to go forward. If God should only withdraw his hand from the flood-gate, it would immediately fly open, and the
English 1301: Composition & Rhetoric I || D. Glen Smith, instructor
7/9/2014
Pathos (emotional)
fiery floods of the fierceness and wrath of God, would rush forth withinconceivable fury, and would come upon you with omnipotentpower; and if your strength were ten thousand times greater than itis, yea, ten thousand times greater than the strength of the stoutest,sturdiest devil in hell, it would be nothing to withstand or endure it.— Jonathan Edwards, “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”delivered July 8, 1741 in Enfield, Connecticut
English 1301: Composition & Rhetoric I || D. Glen Smith, instructor
7/9/2014
Logos (rational)
Usinga rational appealrequires a burden of proof, orclaim.Academic writing requires evidenceto backupobservations:records, statistics, facts, quotes from authoritiesYour thesis statement is logos-driven.Your evidence is fact-based, without an overt bias, shown in clear language.
English 1301: Composition & Rhetoric I || D. Glen Smith, instructor
7/9/2014
Logos (rational)
Most importantly,avoidfallacies:mistaken logic, based on a flawed argumentAvoid:• faultyad hocreasoningpresent only one side to an argumentfalsify information (fake credentials)provide weak induction or deductionred herrings(mislead or distract reader from main point of discussion) orstraw mantechniques.
English 1301: Composition & Rhetoric I || D. Glen Smith, instructor
7/9/2014
Logos (rational)
Red Herrings:see Texas State Universityweb site for examples:http://www.txstate.edu/philosophy/resources/fallacy-definitions/Red-Herring.htmlStraw Man:misrepresent your opponent’s view points or draw attention away from your weaker argument by pointing out other issues— commonly used with an audience with limited information on the full argument
English 1301: Composition & Rhetoric I || D. Glen Smith, instructor
7/9/2014
Logos (rational)
English 1301: Composition & Rhetoric I || D. Glen Smith, instructor
7/9/2014
Logos > Five Types of Claims
Rational appeals utilize different types ofclaims.1. factual claim:declarative sentence thatstatesa current reality:Austinis the capital of Texas.a future condition:TheUS plans to colonize Mars by 2030.a past event:Vikingsdiscovered the New World hundreds of years before Columbus.
English 1301: Composition & Rhetoric I || D. Glen Smith, instructor
7/9/2014
Logos > Five Types of Claims
2. value claim:opinion based declarative promoting personal feelings or tastes,detailing preference between two objects, people, situations.The book, Ulysses,is James Joyce’s strongest, and most complex, novel.
English 1301: Composition & Rhetoric I || D. Glen Smith, instructor
7/9/2014
Logos > Five Types of Claims
3. a moral claimis made on the basis of aprescribedcode of values(not necessarily religious):Despitethe school board’s intentions,teachingcreationismin ahigh schoolscienceclass does not offer awell-roundededucation.
English 1301: Composition & Rhetoric I || D. Glen Smith, instructor
7/9/2014
Logos > Five Types of Claims
4. causal claims:asserts anddefinescauses for an event orsituation:Slaverywas only one cause of theAmericanCivil War.
English 1301: Composition & Rhetoric I || D. Glen Smith, instructor
7/9/2014
Logos > Five Types of Claims
5. deliberative claim:a declarative sentence which asserts somethingshouldorshouldnotbedone.Capitalpunishment is a necessarydeterrentto crime and shouldcontinueasa part of Texas’ legal process.
English 1301: Composition & Rhetoric I || D. Glen Smith, instructor
7/9/2014
Ethos (ethical)
Ethosis the most complicatedportion of the rhetorical processappliesto good debate tactics and publicspeakingborderson philosophical approaches to your particular lifevalues and at the same timeestablishes your tone of authority—in an honest fashionyou display ethical behavior while presenting the various sides of an argumentavoidanceofplagiarism or theft of another writer’sideas
English 1301: Composition & Rhetoric I || D. Glen Smith, instructor
7/9/2014
Ethos (ethical)
An Ethical Writer:presents both sides of the issue in a parallel fashion; seeks out a compromise between the two sides and allows equal time for different points of view(seeRogerianMethod)provides multiple resources in accurate fashion to show a sense of authoritywhen appropriate, supplies credentials as defensedoes not sentimentalize the argument with excessive pathoscan challenge other ideas in non-offensive mannermaintains good intentions throughout paperpresents tone of honesty and good-will, avoiding sarcasm, condescension, and bullying
English 1301: Composition & Rhetoric I || D. Glen Smith, instructor
7/9/2014

0

Embed

Share

Upload

Make amazing presentation for free
Elements of Rhetoric - David-Glen Smith