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Serial Killers
Intro to Profiling
Types of Killers
Psychotic killer:murders as a result of mental disorder and is out of touch with realityEgo-Syntonic: murders without disruption of his ego function. The murder is rational and acceptable to himEgo-Dystonic:killer disassociates himself on a conscious level from the killings- he cannot identify himself with the murder
Phases of Criminal Activity
1)Pre-crime phase: the ongoingbehavioursof the serial killer (iethe killer’s normal dailybehaviour, including fantasizing about murder)2)The murder: including the selection of the victim3)Disposal of body: it may be destroyed, dumped or displayed4)Post-crime phase: getting involved in the investigation or contacting the families of the victim
Categorizing Serial Homicide
Themurders are repetitive, increasing or decreasing in tempo, over a period of time which could be weeks or years and will continue until the offender is apprehended, dies or commits suicideThe murders are usually one-on-oneThe victim and offender are usually strangers to each other, which includes the possibility that the offender stalked the victim for a periodAlthough there may be a pattern regarding modus operandi and victim selection, the motive is seldom discernibleModern technology enables the offender to leave the scene in a hurry before the murder is detectedThere is usually a high degree or aggression and unnecessary violence present and the victim is subjected to unnecessary brutality
Characteristics of Serial Killer
Con’t
Freud
The id:the first structure of the psyche, the one with which the child is bornConsists of instincts, urges and needs which are mainly of an aggressive and sexual natureSexual instinct (libido) is directed at the function of self preservationAlso called the ego-instinct orErosNot only encompass sex but also instincts like hunger, need for affection,etcAggression instinct is the death instinct orThanatos, which can be directed towards the self ortowards other people
IDcon’t
The id functions only according to the pleasure principleWants own pleasure satisfied immediatelyThe id knows no logic, time, morality, or censorship – agrees to everythingPrimary process thinking (primitive and pre-logical thoughts) takes place in the idThe id is based within the subconscious which is not only the home of aggressive and sexual urges, but everything that is unacceptable to the ego is repressed to the idThe subconscious cannot directly communicate with ego, because the ego does not want to hear its complaints and demands; they communicate through dreams, symbols, and symptoms
EGO
The ego:second psychic structure to developConstitutes the executive personality of the individualDevelops this as a child learns to differentiate between himself, other people and objects and cultivates an awareness of the reality surrounding himThe reality principle is an important function of the ego: it has to negotiate the psycheHoused in the consciousMust maintain the balance between the id and the superego and realityChecks whether it is realistic to satisfy the instinct or need that the id insists on gratification; it takes consequences into considerationNegotiates with the outside world and the id and superego until it reaches a compromiseCapable of secondary process thinking, which includes logic, words, evaluation of consequences and time
EGOCon’t
Uses defense mechanisms to assist in keeping the balance between the id, the superego, and realityOne of the most important defense mechanisms is repression; when the ego becomes aware of a threatening instinct from within the id because it is in conflict with reality or the superego, the ego represses that instinct or urge or fantasy back to the subconscious and ignores it, or it may employ another defense mechanismDefense mechanisms differ according to their level of maturity:narcissistic defense mechanismsare very primitive (include denial, distortion, primitive idealization, projection, and splitting);immature defense mechanismsinclude acting out, blocking, hypochondria, identification, introjection, passive-aggressiveness, projection, regression, schizoid fantasies,somatization,and a turning against the self;neurotic defensesare control, displacement, dissociation, externalization, inhibitions, intellectualization, isolation, rationalism, reaction-formation, repression, sexualizing, and undoing;mature defense mechanismsare altruism, anticipation, abstinence, humor, sublimation and postponementDevelops continuously, but various factors can delay or retard its developmentThe id or superego can be so overpowering that one of the two completely dominates the ego
Superego
The superego:the conscience that develops from the ego, starting at about the end of the Oedipus phaseatfive or six yearsBecomes an internal force when the child avoids doing wrong through internal conviction and not because he fears external punishmentExists as a result of identification with the parents, mainly the father figureRepresents the moral standards of society, ethics, cultural factors, censorship, conscience and guilt feelings; the superego says “no” to everything
SuperegoCon’t
Holds an ideal “benchmark” to measure the egoCan function from the conscious or the subconsciousThe development of neurotic symptoms in a normal personSexual and aggressive impulses and fantasies penetrate the ego from the id; the ego cannot reconcile these impulses with reality or with the superego, they are considered threatening and tabooAnxiety then forms within the ego and the superego will punish it with guilt feelings, and then the ego immediately represses the id impulses back to the subconsciousIn the subconscious, fixations or complexes form around these impulses, and the impulses will employ other methods to gain acknowledgement, such as neurotic symptoms, dreams and symbolsThe more the ego represses, the more the impulses within the subconscious demand acknowledgement – much psychic energy is lost in this process, which prevents the ego from developing and causes depression
Connection to Serial Killers
The ego is underdeveloped because of domination by the id; it has no need to repress the urges or destructive fantasies from the id, because the ego is too weak to be threatened – the ego is also too narcissistic to care about external reality and the superego is virtually non-existent because of lack of identification with a positive father figureThe ego is free to allow the acting out of sexual and aggressive fantasies; thus, there is no reason for the development of neurotic symptomsSerial killers are more normal than most neurotic individuals, which should dispel the myth that they are recognizable as raving lunatics
Psychosexual Stages of Development
Oral phase – 0-2 years:The earliest phase of psychosexual development where all the child’s needs, perceptions, and manner of expressing himself are centered around the mouth (lips, tongue,etc)All needs (hunger, love,etc) are satisfied through the mouth – he sucks and drinksPuts his fingers, toes, toys,etcinto his mouth and so learns to differentiate between objectsCan express himself only through his mouth by screaming, gurgling, or cryingThe mouth is referred to as the erotogenic zoneThere are two oral instincts or urges, namely oral erotic (the sucking/drinking stage) and oral sadistic (the stage where the infant bites, spits, and cries)
OralCon’t
At an early stage, Eros andThanatosare already at play; there are primitive sadistic fantasies of biting, eating, and destruction within the child’s subconsciousThe child is all idToo much satisfaction or abstinence (i.e– the infant gets too much or too little milk) can lead to oral fixation which will manifest later in his personality. Characteristics of this during adulthood are: excessive optimism, narcissism, pessimism, and demandingA person with an oral character is excessivelydependantand demands that others should give him everything and care for him; can be very generous, but there is a subconscious need for the other person to reciprocateBite marks indicate oral sadism, which will probably classify the serial killer as hedonistic lust-motivatedCannibalism indicates a severe identity crisis, and the killer tries in this very primitive way to incorporate the identity of the victim by physically eating them
Anal phase – 2-4 years:Characterized by the development of the sphincter muscle which controls the anal closure reflexKnown as the “potty-training” phase; the erotogenic zone is the anusAlso characterized by an intensifying of aggressive urges and the child derives pleasure from his sadistic impulses – where he was previously more passive, he now becomes more active and has more control over himself and his environmentThe child learns to walk, dress himself, and has more control over his bodily functionsThis is also known as thecontrol phaseA power struggle typically ensues between the parent and the child; he can get angry with the parent, but he also loves the parent and isdependanton them for his survival – the child can become confused by this ambivalent feelingsAnal eroticismrefers to the sexual pleasure of defecating – the child can retain his own product or present it as “a gift” to the parentAnal sadismrefers to the expression of aggression and feces becomes dangerous weapons of destruction in the child’s subconscious fantasies; children in this phase of fantasies of bombs, explosions, and volcanoes erupting
The child has several defense options against the ambivalence he feels towards his parents:May feel that he should not get angry with his parent – if he shows anger towards the parent, he may lose the love of that parent, whom he isdependanton for his own survival, and he might die. He may see himself as a bad personMay fear losing the parent’s lobe and become very compliant and good, just to please the parent – he develops a pleasing personality, wanting to buy the affection of others and cannot assert himself. He will become passive-aggressive individual who sabotages interpersonal relationshipsMay acknowledge the parent as the aggressor, but because he fears losing the parent’s love, he will identify with the parent and also becomes aggressive. These children become typical bulliesA person who is fixated in this phase will have the following traits: orderly, hard-nosed, and stingyShould the child’s defense mechanisms fail, he will never be able to deal with ambivalence; he will not have the maturity to realize that one can be angry with a person while still loving him or herOther characteristics of anal personalities are: slovenliness, anger,sado-masochism, and obsessive-compulsiveSuccessful completion of this phase is indicated by a person who can function independently, can tolerate ambivalence and cooperate with others without being either complacent or dominantSigns of obsessive-compulsive rituals will be ex: redressing the victim perfectly, placing the shoes neatly next to each other, making a bow around the victim’s neckSigns of sadism on the body are significant; it correlates with both the oral and the anal phasessadism implies control and the anal phase is a control phasesuch a serial killer can be classified ashedonistic, lust-orpower-motivated
Oedipus/Phallic Phase: 4-6 years-Freud considers Oedipus phase most important of psychosexual developmentduringthis extreme sexual phase; the boy subconsciously falls in love with the mother and competes with father for her attention-the opposite happens with the daughter who subconsciously falls in love with the father-the erotogenic zone is the penis- This phase is characterized by sexual interest, stimulation and masturbation-both sexes are interested in the penis-girl may develop penis envy when she sees the boy’s penis and realizes she doesn’t have one- holds mother responsible for her own “castration”, for she is subconsciously in love with the mother’s husband- the boy realizes the girl has no penis and develops castration anxiety; thinks the girl has been ‘castrated’ and that it is possible that he could lose his own penis. Fears father will castrate him; because he’s in love with the father’s wife- All of this happens on a subconscious level, but it will manifest inbehaviourssuch as the boy refusing to allow the father near her, hitting the father, etc.- natural for boys to be very attached to their mothers at this stage- fathers make the mistake of fearing their boys are going to become ‘sissies’ and mothers make the mistake of being so flattered by their sons attention that they neglect their husbands and allow their son to ‘conquer’ the father figure
-a man may feel ‘castrated’ by being belittled continuously by a woman- this has its origin in the mother rejecting the boy- at the end of this phase it would be normal for the boy to give up his mother as the object of his sexual attraction and identity with his father, likewise the girl- wide variety of fixations can develop in this phase- result can be homosexuality, boy identifies with mother instead of father-a fixation; can result in boy marrying woman like his mother- most important fixation in this phase is castration anxiety which arises from guilt feelings about the boy’s aggression towards his father (revenge) and sexuality directed towards his mother- someone who has completed this phase will have an appropriate sexual identity and basis of a healthy conscience-phallic instrument (broomstick, bottle,etc) forced into the vagina or anus of a female victim it indicates castration anxiety- suspect fears losing his penis because the woman does not have one and reminds him he may lose his- suffers from psychological impotence; man who rapes feels psychologically impotent, though he may be physically potent-The serial killer who commits necrophilia has a serious communication problem; only feels safe being intimate with a dead person; as they cannot reject, tease, or humiliate him

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Serial Killers - keenerwgss.webs.com