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Two ways of studying metaphors in cognitive linguistics ...

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Twowaysof studying metaphors in cognitive linguistics: the lexical vs. the corpus-linguisticapproach
ZoltánKövecses, LauraAmbrus,DánielHegedűs, Ren Imai, and AnnaSobczakCultural Linguistics doctoral programEötvösLorándUniversity, Budapest
IntuitivemethodLexicalapproachCorpus-linguisticapproachTheconceptof SURPRISE:surprise
Lexicalapproach
Avarietyofdifferentdictionaries:bilingual,monolingual,idiom, slang,collocation,thesauri, etc.synonyms, antonyms, related words, various idioms and phrases, collocations, and, importantly, the definitions of the lexemesIdentifythemetaphors–groupthemintothematicunits(sourcedomains) –workoutthemappings
Surpriseinthelexicalapproach
surprisenoun1. An unexpected or astonishing event, fact, or thing:theannouncement was acomplete surpriseMore example sentences Synonyms1.1. A feeling of mild astonishment or shock caused by something unexpected:much to her surprise, she’dmissed himMore example sentences Synonyms1.2.[as modifier]Denoting something made, done, or happening unexpectedly:a surprise attackMore example sentences2.[as modifier] Bell-ringingDenoting a class of complex methods of change-ringing:surprise majorverb[with object]1. (Of something unexpected) cause (someone) to feel mild astonishment or shock:I was surprised at hisstatement [with object and infinitive]:Joe was surprised that heenjoyed thejourney [with infinitive]: she was surprised tolearn that he was fortyMore example sentences Synonyms1.1. Capture, attack, or discover suddenly and unexpectedly; catch unawares:he surprised agangstealingscrap metal
Idiomsandorigin
Phrasessurprise, surprise1. informalSaid when giving someone a surprise.1.1. Said ironically when one believes that something was entirely predictable:weentrust you with Jason’scare and, surprisesurprise, you make amess of ittake someone/something by surprise2. Attack or capture someone or something unexpectedly.(take someone by surprise)2.1 Happen when someone is not prepared or is expecting something different:thequestion tookDavid by surpriseOriginLate Middle English (in the sense 'unexpected seizure of a place, or attack on troops'): from Old French, feminine past participle ofsurprendre, from medieval Latinsuperprehendere'seize'.
Synonyms
Synonymsastonish, amaze, nonplus, startle, astound, stun, flabbergast, stagger, shock, stop someone in their tracks, stupefy, leave open-mouthed, take someone's breath away, dumbfound, daze, benumb, confound, take aback, jolt, shake upinformalbowl over, knock for six, floor, blow someone's mind, strike dumbView synonymsastonished, amazed, in amazement, nonplussed, taken aback, startled, astounded, stunned, flabbergasted, staggered, shocked, shell-shocked, stupefied, open-mouthed, dumbfounded, dumbstruck, speechless, at a loss for words, thunderstruck, dazed, benumbed, confounded, agape, goggle-eyed, wide-eyed, jolted, shaken up
Collocations
surprisenoun1feeling of surpriseADJ.great, utter | mild, some | initialAfter the initial surprise I got to like the place.| mockHis eyebrows rose in mock surprise.QUANT.elementThe Egyptian team relied on the element of surprise to defeat their stronger opponents.VERB + SURPRISEexpress, register, show | feignHe feigned surprise when I went up and said hello.| hideShe was quick to hide her surprise.| causeThe president's remarks caused surprise and embarrassment.PREP.in ~‘Walk twenty miles!’ repeated the old man in surprise.| to your ~Much to her surprise she enjoyed the party.| with/without ~It was with some surprise that I read of his resignation.| ~ atShe showed no surprise at the news.PHRASESan expression/a look of surprise, a gasp/scream/shriek, etc. of surprise2sththat you did not expectADJ.big, complete, great, major, total | lovely, nice, pleasant, wonderfulVERB + SURPRISEcome as | get, haveI had a lovely surprise when I saw Mark there.| springJohnson sprung a surprise by beating thefavouritein the first round.| be in forYour mother's in for a bit of a surprise when she gets home.| catchsbby, takesbbyThe storm took us completely by surprise.
Senses
EMOTION sense: the nounsurpriseDefinition: a feeling of mild astonishment or shock caused by something unexpected.(http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/surprise)CAUSE OF EMOTION sense: the nounsurpriseDefinition: an unexpected or astonishing event, fact, or thing.(http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/surprise)CAUSE EMOTION sense: the verbsurpriseDefinition: (of something unexpected) cause (someone) to feel mild astonishment or shock.(http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/surprise)EFFECT OF EMOTION sense: the modifiersurpriseDefinition: feeling or showing surprise.(http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/surprise)
Lexicalstructureofsurprise
cause (of emotion / surprise) – causes – emotion / surprise|effectof emotion / surprise
Metaphors
Herbiography is a realeye-opener.(http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/eye-opener)The community wasstunnedby the tragedy.(http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/stun)When he walked into his surprise birthday party, he was completelyspeechless.(http://www.yourdictionary.com/speechless)She wasshockedat the state of his injuries.(http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/shock#shock-2)
Underlyingconceptualmetaphors
SURPRISING SOMEONE IS UNEXPECTEDLY IMPACTING SOMEONETHECAUSE OF EMOTION IS A FORCECAUSES ARE FORCES
spring a surprise on someone:Onhisfirstdayatworktheysprangasurpriseonhim.(http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/spring-a-surprise)bolt from / out of the blue: He seemed to be very happy in his job, so his resignation came as a bolt out of the blue.(http://idioms.thefreedictionary.com/a+bolt+from+the+blue)bombshell: The news came as a bombshell.(http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/bombshell)rude awakening: We had a rude awakening when we saw the amount of our phone bill.(http://idioms.thefreedictionary.com/a+rude+awakening)wake-up call: The bombing was a wake-up call to strengthen domestic security.(http://www.thefreedictionary.com/wake-up+calls)turn up / one for the books: There have been a lot of scandals in local politics over the years, but this is one for the books.(http://www.learnersdictionary.com/definition/book)
Themappings
Anotherconceptualmetaphor
take someone by surprise: The questiontookDavid by surprise.(http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/surprise)catch someone unawares:Burchill'sshotcaughtthegoalkeepercompletelyunawares.(http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/unawares)catch someone off guard: Tom caught Ann off guard and frightened her.(http://idioms.thefreedictionary.com/catch+off+guard)SURPRISING (SOMEONE) IS AN UNEXPECTED SEIZURE/ATTACK
Metonymy
PHYSICAL EFFECTS:eye-opener; leave open-mouthed; take someone’s breath away; breathtaking; take aback; shake up; bowl over; floor; startled; staggered;an expression/a look of surprise; a gasp/scream/shriek, etc. of surpriseTHE EFFECTSOF AN EMOTION FOR THEEMOTIONMENTALEFFECTS:speechless; stupefy; mind-blowing; dumbfound; daze; astound; shock; astonish; amaze; stun; flabbergast; dumbstruck; thunderstruck; confounded; flummoxed; turn up / one for the books(http://www.oxforddictionaries.com)
Thecorpus-linguisticapproach
List ofcitationsCOCA1990-20122000citations
OBJECTmetaphor
SURPRISE IS A PHYSICAL OBJECT (678 tokens, 75 types)INTENSITY OF SURPRISE IS THE SIZE OF A PHYSICAL OBJECT (119 tokens, 8 types)According to the corpus data surprise can be described asbig/bigger/the biggest(75),great/greater(22),huge(3),enormous(1),little(15), orsmall(1); surprise canget bigger(1) or it can belessened(1).THE DISPLAY OF SURPRISE IS THE OBSERVABILITY OF   PHYSICAL OBJECT (21 tokens, 7 types)e.g.to show a surprise(9),to see a surprise(2),to hide a surprise(2).CAUSING SURPRISE IS THE TRANSFER OF A PHYSICAL OBJECT (25 tokens, 7 types)e.g.to get a surprise(11),to bring a surprise(3),to give a surprise(3).ATTRIBUTING SURPRISE TO SOMEONE ISATTRIBUTINGTHEPOSSESSION OF A PHYSICAL OBJECT TO SOMEONE/SOME-THING (257 tokens, 6 types)e.g.to her surprise,he looks at her surprise,I have a surprise.
THE PRESENCE OF SURPRISE IS THE PRESENCE OF A PHYSICAL OBJECT HERE (168 tokens, 4 types)e.g.to come as no surprise(59),to come as a surprise(72),surprise is (not) here/there(28),lack of surprise (2).THE CO-PRESENCE OF SURPRISE AND ANOTHER STATE/EVENT IS THE INSTRUMENTAL USE OF AN OBJECT (23 tokens, 17 types)e.g.to react with surprise(4),to say with surprise(3),to realize with surprise(2).DIFFICULTIESARE OBSTACLES (3 tokens, 3 types)e.g.to get over a surprise(1),to overcome a surprise(1).
SUBSTANCEmetaphor
SURPRISE IS A PHYSICAL SUBSTANCE (13 tokens, 11 types)e.g.mix of surprise and annoyanceTHE INTENSITY OF SURPRISE IS THE AMOUNT OF THE PHYSICAL SUBSTANCE(5 tokens, 7 types)e.g.much of a surprise(2),more of a surprise(1).SURPRISE IS A SUBSTANCE IN A CONTAINER (+ THE BODY IS A CONTAINER FOR EMOTIONS) (4 tokens, 4 types)e.g.full of surprise(1),surprise in someone's eyes(1).
CONTAINERmetaphor
STATES ARE CONTAINERS (7 tokens, 5 types)BEING SURPRISED IS BEING IN A CONTAINER (7 tokens, 5 types)e.g.to say in surprise(2),to ask in surprise(2),look at someone in surprise(7).
SURPRISING SOMEONE IS UNEXPECTED SEIZURE/ATTACK (113 tokens, 5 types)The most frequent types wereto take someone by surprise(72) andto catch someone by surprise(38).SURPRISINGSOMEONE IS UNEXPECTEDLY IMPACTING SOMEONE (2 tokens, 1 type)e.g.to spring a surprise(2).
Minormetaphors
EMOTIONS ARE OPPONENTS (4 tokens, 4 types)e.g.to protect from surprise(1).EMOTIONS ARE ILLNESSES (3 tokens, 2 types)e.g.to recover from surprise(2),to die from surprise(1).EMOTIONS ARE PLACES (2 tokens, 2 types)e.g.area of surprise(1).
Metonymyinthecorpus-linguisticapproach
EFFECT OF SURPRISE FOR SURPRISE (126 tokens, 89 types)e.g.an expression of surprise(3)THE PHYSICAL EFFECT OF SURPRISE FOR SURPRISE(89 tokens, 62 types)CHANGE IN EYE EXPRESSION FOR SURPRISE(47 tokens, 22 types)e.g. EYES OPENING WIDE, BLINKING, RAISING EYEBROWS,a look of surpriseCHANGE IN FACIAL EXPRESSION FOR SURPRISE(17 tokens, 17 types)e.g.surprise lit his faceSUDDEN MOVEMENT FOR SURPRISE(15tokens, 14types)e.g.JUMPING, [he] leaped back in surpriseTHE MOUTH OPENING FOR SURPRISE(6tokens, 5types)e.g.he gaped in surprise
THEMENTAL EFFECT OF SURPRISE FOR SURPRISE (29tokens, 23types)MAKINGASOUNDFOR SURPRISE (13 tokens, 11 types)e.g. SHOUTING, GASPING,murmur of surpriseCRYING FOR SURPRISE (5 tokens, 3 types)e.g.[he] gave a little cry of surpriseAN UPSETTING FEELING FOR SURPRISE (4 tokens, 3 types)e.g.staring in shocked surpriseCHANGE IN VOICE FOR SURPRISE (4 tokens, 3 types)e.g.surprise in his voice
Generalevaluationofresults
1. The lexical method performs better at finding the main target-specific conceptual metaphors, such as SURPRISING SOMEONE IS UNEXPECTEDLY IMPACTING SOMEONE and SURPRISING (SOMEONE) IS UNEXPECTED SEIZURE/ATTACK.Thecorpus-linguistic method performs better at identifying the general (i.e. non-target-specific) conceptual metaphors of SURPRISE.
2. In the case of metaphorical expressions that do not contain a target term, the lexical method performs better, since it can find most of these expressions.3. The lexical method works better with synonyms of target as potential metaphors for that target.
4. The lexical method performs better in discovering schematic conceptual models associated with emotion concepts.5. The corpus-linguistic method performs better in finding the entire range of metaphorical expressions (both conventionalized and non-conventionalized) – except for those expressions that do not contain the target term. The lexical method can only find the conventionalized metaphorical expressions – including those that do not contain the target term.
6. The corpus-linguistic method is more effective because it works both with types and tokens, whereas the lexical method can only work with types.7. The corpus-linguistic method can capture a larger range of metonymies than the lexical method can.
Whydowehavethesedifferencesinmethod?
IMAGE SCHEMAS………………|………………………………………………………………………|DOMAINS||FRAMES--------------|--------|--------|---------------------------------------------------------MENTAL SPACESLevelsofmetaphor(inpreparation)
THANK YOU.

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Two ways of studying metaphors in cognitive linguistics ...