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Chapter 20

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Chapter 20
Measuring and Using Energy ChangesSection 20.2
Main Idea
Energy stored in chemical bonds can be converted to other forms and used to meet the needs of individuals and of societies.
Calorimetry
The heat generated in chemical reactions can be measured by a technique calledcalorimetryand a device called a calorimeter.
Calorimetry
The amount of heat energy of a reaction is calculated using the following equation:q = m x c xΔTq= heat lost or gained by samplem= mass of the samplec= specific heat of sampleΔT = temperature change of the water(ΔT =Tfinal–Tinitial)(ΔT negative endothermic)
Calorimetry
You will be using a calorimeter where a hot substance and cold substance are brought together.
Example problem
How much heat is absorbed by a reaction that lowers the temperature of 500.0g of water in a calorimeter by 1.10°C?Use q = m x c xΔTm= 500.0 gΔT = 1.10°CWhat is c? Specific heat. Look up for water…c= 4.18 J/g•°C
Cont…
q= 500.0g x 4.18 J/g•°C x 1.10°Cq= 2,299J
Another problem…
Aluminum reacts with iron (III) oxide to yield aluminum oxide and iron. Calculate the heat given off in the reaction if the temperature of the 100.00 g of water in the calorimeter increases by 3.00°C.Use q = m x c xΔT
Another problem…
Burning a small quantity of hexane raises the temperature of424gof water in a calorimeter from18.4°Cto32.7°C. How much heat was released in the reaction?q= (m)(c)(ΔT)q=25,344Jor?kJ
Next…
In this experiment you will determine the specific heat of an unknown metal. The metal will be heated to a known temperature then placed in astyrofoamcup that contains a known amount of water a room temperature.
Since Styrofoam is an insulator, it acts as a calorimeter. Heat will be transferred from the hot metal to the water, but heat should not be lost to the surroundings.
You will observe what happens to the temperature of the metal and the water. Heat will be transferred from a hot substance to a cold substance until the temperatures are equal.Sound familiar…equilibrium
At the end of the experiment, the metal and water will be the same temperature. The heat lost by the metal will be gained by the water.You can then calculate the specific heat of the metal by knowing the mass of the metal, mass of the water and the changeof temperature.
Practice Problems
A 10g of sample of a certain brand of cereal is burned in a calorimeter. The 4.o kg of surrounding water increased temperature from 22.oC to 30.2 C. What is the food Calorie per gram?
How much heat is released by a reaction that raises the temperature of 756g of water in a calorimeter from 23.2C to 37.6C?

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Chapter 20