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Chapter 5_ The Phrase - PC__MAC

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Chapter 5: The Phrase
Part 1: Prepositional Phrases-The Adjective & Adverb Phrase
What is a phrase?
A group of words that is missing a verb, a subject, or bothExamples:in the kitchen (no subject or verb)could have been hiding (no subject)to go with them (no subject)
Practice…Are these phrases or not
when you knowNPin the gardenP (missing subject and verb)is sleepingP (missing subject)how she rememberedNPsmiling brightlyP (missing subject)to the supermarketP (missing subject and verb)
Kinds of Phrases
1) Prepositional Phrase:Beginswith a preposition (remember your song…because now you really need it!!!)Endswith a noun or pronoun
Example Prepositional Phrases
during the dayPreposition: duringNoun/pronoun: daywith usPreposition: withNoun/pronoun: us
Kinds of Phrases cont’d
1A) The Adjective PhraseA prepositional phrase that describes a noun or pronounSo, it begins with a preposition and ends with a noun, but it goes back to or is giving extra information about anoun or pronounCharles Dickens wrote manytales{about poverty}.about poverty= the adjective phrase (begins with about, ends with poverty)tales= the noun it is giving extra information about
Adjective Phrase cont’d
Answers the questions:What kind?How many?Which one?How much?**TIP** Adjective phrases usually follow the word or words they describe
Adjective Phrase cont’d
You try…Easy-----The store with the neon sign is open.Harder----Here’s a gift for you from Mr. B.Hardest-----A majority of the animals in the world sleep during the day.
Adjective Phrase Answers:
Easy-----Thestore{with the neon sign} is open.with the neon sign = adjective phrasestore= noun it is describing (answers: which one?)Harder----Here’s agift{for you} {from Mr. B}.for you = adjective phrasefrom Mr. B = adjective phrasegift= noun that BOTH phrases are describing (answers: which one?)Hardest-----Amajority{of theanimals} {in the world} sleep during the day.of the animals = adjective phrasemajority= noun it is describing (answers: how many?)in the world = adjective phraseanimals= noun it is describing (part of the 1stadjective phrase) (answers: what kind?)
Kinds of Phrases cont’d
1B) The Adverb PhraseA prepositional phrase that describes a verb, adjective, or adverbSo, it begins with a preposition and ends with a noun, but it goes back to or is giving extra information abouta verb, adjective, or adverbThe Ford Motor Companywas founded{by Henry Ford} {in 1903}.by Henry Ford= adverb phrasein 1903= adverb phrasewas founded= verb they are giving extra info about
Adverb Phrase cont’d
Answers the questions:When?Where?How?Why?How often?How long?To what extent?**TIP** like adverbs,adverb phrases can move around in the sentence. Adjective phrases usually only follow the word or words they describe.
Adverb Phrase cont’d
You try…Easy----We got our new puppy at the animal shelter.Harder----She drove for hours through the storm.Hardest----The boat landed on the island near the coast.
Adverb Phrase Answers
Easy----Wegotour new puppy {at the animal shelter}.at the animal shelter = adverb phrasegot = verb it is describing (answers: where?)Harder----Shedrove{for hours} {through the storm}.for hours = adverb phrasethrough the storm = adverb phrasedrove= verb that BOTH phrases are describing (answers: how long? and where?)Hardest----The boatlanded{on theisland} {near the coast}.on the island = adverb phraselanded = verb it is describing (answers: where?)near the coast = adjective phraseisland = noun it is describing (part of the adverb phrase) (answers: which one?)
Chapter 5: The Phrase
Part II: Verbal Phrases-The Participle & Infinitive Phrases
What is a Participle?
A verb form that can be used as an adjective (describes a noun or pronoun)1) Present Participle = ends in “ing”2) Past Participle = ends in “d” or “ed”Some past participles are irregular and do not have this endingFor example: frozenI went ice skating on the frozen pond.Frozen = past participlePond = noun it is describing
Practice: pg 99-100
Find the participles and nouns/pronouns they describe:Annoyed, I went inside to watch TV.Annoyed= past participleI= pronoun it is describingI woke my sleeping father to ask about mosquitoes.Sleeping= present participleFather= noun it is describingSucking blood for food, mosquitoes survive in many different cultures.Sucking= present participleMosquitoes= noun it is describingBites make the skin swell, and the swollen skin itches.Swollen= past participleSkin= noun it is describing
Participle Phrase
Participle phrases are used as adjectives (describes a noun/pronoun)Begins with a participle and contains all describing wordsExamples:Stretching slowlyPredicted by the meteorologistReading the assignment
Participle Phrases
Tips:Look for words that end in “ing” or are past tenseAsk: Who or What is that word talking about?Check to make sure the who or what is a noun**Many times, these phrases have commas after them!
You Try…
Cheering for the team, we celebrated the victory.Cheering for the team(uses present participle)Shown here, his design for the newest fighter jet was the first one in history.Shown here(uses past participle)Have you ever heard of International Left-Hander’s Day, celebrated on August 13?Celebrated on August 13(uses past participle)
What is an infinitive?
A verb form that can be used as a noun, adjective, or adverb.Most infinitives begin with the preposition “to”**They areALWAYSfollowed by aVERB**Examples:ToremainTomeetTodream
You Try…
My first stop would be to visit the Statue of Liberty.To visit= infinitiveFrance gave the statue to the U.S. in 1884.NoneIt was a gift to express the friendship between the two nations.To express= infinitive
Infinitive Phrases
An infinitive phrase begins with the infinitive (to + a verb) and contains all describing words & prepositional phrasesExamples:To be a good gymnastTo fly over both the North and South PolesTo go to the gym now
You Try…
A bird sings to claim its territory.Toclaim its territoryHuman beings learned to build aircraft by carefully studying the way birds fly.Tobuild aircraftTo recognize the songs of different birds takes many hours of practice.Torecognize the songs of different birdsBirdsuse their feathers to push their bodies through the air.To push their bodies through the air
Part III: Phrases
Appositive Phrases
What is an appositive?
It is a noun or pronoun placed beside another noun or pronoun to describe or give more information about it.Most often, they are surrounded by commas.Example:My teacher, Mr. Craig, enjoys books by Jane Austen.Mr. Craig = appositiveTeacher = noun it is describing
Appositive Phrase
A phrase that is giving more information about a noun or pronoun.Examples:Frankie,a goodhearted and intelligent girl, is a pleasure to teach.Set off by commas & can be taken outTrevor’s friendMikesometimes gives Trevor poor advice.Not set off by commas because Trevor has more than one friend, so Mike’s name is important in the sentence
You Try…
My sister Alyssa is a hard worker.Alyssa= appositiveSister= noun it is describingChris, my next door neighbor, is a carpenter.My next door neighbor= appositive phraseChris= noun it is describingWill your cousin Tiffany visit you this summer?Tiffany= appositiveCousin= noun it is describingGino is playing with his favorite toy, the Thomas train set.The Thomas the train set= appositive phraseToy= noun it is describingJackson Square, a landmark in New Orleans, has a statue of Andrew Jackson on it.A landmark in New Orleans= appositive phraseJackson Square= noun it is describing

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Chapter 5_ The Phrase - PC__MAC