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Chapter 6 Cultural Identity

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Chapter 6 Cultural Identity
Cultural IdentityCultural BiasesIntercultural ContactIntercultural Communicator
Cultural Identity
Nature of IdentityCultural identity: belonging to a particular culture or ethnic groupEthnic Identity: generally defined on the basis of cultural criteria (customs, language)Racial Identity: generally defined on the basis of physical criteria (skin color, facial features)
Identity
Social Identity: Memberships that are particular to cultural identityPersonal Identity: Activities that differ from cultural identity; Sexuality; individuality
Identity
Gender identityPink or Blue?Nature or Nurture?Brain Research: Color, texture, motion, LanguageAge IdentityInfant/ChildAdolescentAdultMiddle AgeSenior CitizenMixed Identity
Identity
Religious identitySocioeconomic IdentityNational/Regional Identity
Identity Development
Unexamined Cultural IdentityCultural Identity SearchCultural Identity Achievement
White Privilege
Normative Race PrivilegeDominant cultureIndividual IdentityGuilt for being whitePerceptions of PrivilegeLoss of privilege(reading)
Ethnocentrism
The tendency people have to evaluate others according to their own standards and experienceWhile this tendency can help bind people together, it can also present serious obstacles to cross-cultural interactions
(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.  All rights reserved.Cushner/McClelland/Safford,Human Diversity in Education, 5/e
Categorization
Categorization is the cognitive process by which all human beings simplify their world by grouping similar stimuliOur categories give meaning to our perceptions
Aprototype imagebest characterizes the meaning of a categoryExample: for the category “bird,” we usually think of robins, not chickens
(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.  All rights reserved.Cushner/McClelland/Safford,Human Diversity in Education, 5/e
Stereotypes
Stereotypes are socially constructed categories of peopleThey usually obscure differenceswithingroupsThey are frequently negative and play to ethnocentric ideas of “the other”
(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.  All rights reserved.Cushner/McClelland/Safford,Human Diversity in Education, 5/e
Understanding Prejudice and Racism
Ethnocentrism leads people to believe that their own “ways” are good and “natural”Prejudice implies a lack of thought or care in making a judgment about othersWhile racial and ethnic prejudice can be expressed both positively and negatively, in the United States it is most often negative
(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.  All rights reserved.Cushner/McClelland/Safford,Human Diversity in Education, 5/e
Racism, Cont’d
Symbolic RacismTokenismAversive RacismLikes & dislikesDegree of unfamiliarity
Extreme Cases of Prejudice
Racism—the transformation of prejudicial attitudes through the use of power directed toward those one regards as inferiorHate Groups—any organized body that denigrates select groups of people based on ethnicity, race, religion, or sexual orientationWhite Privilege—the largely unconscious acceptance by dominant groups of privileges denied to oppressed groupsRacial Profiling—law enforcement practices aimed at those who “fit” a particular profile—usually age, ethnicity, and/or race
(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.  All rights reserved.Cushner/McClelland/Safford,Human Diversity in Education, 5/e
Something to Think About
“One of the higher callings for young people in the coming century will be working to increase intercultural understanding. Such people will be the missionaries of the age, spreading light among groups. . .by giving them a modern vision of the new global community.”—Carl Coon
(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.  All rights reserved.Cushner/McClelland/Safford,Human Diversity in Education, 5/e

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Chapter 6 Cultural Identity