Social Studies Notes
Ch. 22 & 23
In the United States, Nationalism led to westwardexpansion.2)Marie Curiediscovered the radioactive element radium.
3) Political ideas in the mid-1880’s that helped shape Europe were nationalism and politicalreform.
4)James Hargreaves- invented the spinning jenny5)Capital- money invested in a business
6) Economic system based on the use of machinery for production of goods -industrialism7) Discovered a way to use coal to turn iron ore into pure iron -Henry Cort
8) Designed a steam engine to power machines -James Watt9)William Gladstone- led the liberal party
10)Otto von Bismarck- prime minister who tried to unite Germany11)Simon Bolivar- South American military leader who led the fight for freedom from Spain
12)abolitionism- the movement to end slavery13)Giuseppe Garibaldi- the revolutionary leader who was a master of guerrilla warfare
14) American idea that the country should stretch from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean.Manifest Destiny
15) Catholic clergy or church officials in France ion 1700’s -First Estate16) British laws that inflamed American colonists to work together to defend their liberties -Intolerable Acts
17) Idea that society should be able to provide the greatest happiness for the largest number of people -utilitarianism
18) French document stating that the power of government came from the people -Intolerable Acts19) site where Britain’s Duke of Wellington defeated the French -Waterloo
20) Formed the National Assembly to write a Constitution for France -the Third Estate21) the middle class -bourgeoisie
22) general who crowned himself emperor of France -Napoleon Bonaparte23) Lawyer who tried to create a “Republic of Virtue: but instead established the Reign of Terror -Maximilien Robespierre
24) By the early 1700s, how many colonies did England have along the Atlantic Coast?thirteen25) Ptolemy’s geocentric, or Earth-centered, theorywas accepted in Europe for over 1400 years.
26) Observed that plants and animals change over time in order to adapt and survive -Charles Darwin
27)The belief that all people have basic rights of equality and freedom of speech -liberalism28) The Industrial Revolution began official inGreat Britain.
29) This ruler was one of Russia’s most powerful czars.Peter the Great30) The final victory for the colonists in the war for independence against Britain was theBattle of Yorktown.
31) If an astronomer’s hypotheses fit with calculations and observations,the astronomer’s work is sufficient.
32) Which two countries remained undefeated by Napoleon? Britain and Russia33) What was the goal of the Congress of Vienna? Returning Europe to a state of Peace and stability after a long period of war
34) One important cause of the Industrial Revolution was a movement that allowed landowners to fence off their land, called.Returning Europe to a state of peace and stability after a long period of war.
35) One important cause of the Industrial Revolution was a movement that allowed landowners to fence off their land, calledenclosure laws.
36) What carried raw materials, finished goods, and people faster and cheaper than any other early invention?steam-powered boat37) A business that raises money by selling shares to investors is called acorporation.
38) Which was an English thinker who developed the scientific method?Francis Bacon39) Which early scientist theorized that the planets moved in an elliptical orbit, or oval-like path, around the sun? Jahannes Kepler
40) Entrepreneurs took on financial risks and created industries bybringing together capital, labor, and new industrial inventions.
41) Catherine the Great of Russiaallowed nobles to dominate the serfs.42) In the late 1700’s, the National Convention ended the monarchy and made France a(n)republic.
43) People who listened to the speeches weresurprised and upset that a girl would speak up.44) In the 1700’s, the frustrations of poor french people were a cause ofthe French Revolution.
45) Thomas HObbes and John Locke differed in their views of how the government was influenced bynatural law.
46) Which two natural resources did Great Britain have in large supply that helped fuel the rise of industry there?47) Why did revolutions sweep across Europe in 1848?People wanted democratic and nationalistic reform.
48) One English writer who was a strong supporter of women’s rights wasMary Wollstonecraft.49) Because classical thinkers often based their conclusions on common sense,some of their beliefs were false.