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Chapter 8 The Jeffersonian and Madison Presidency

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Chapter 8 The Jeffersonian and Madison Presidency
Election of 1800
The following candidates runAdamsJeffersonPinckneyAaron Burr
Hamilton V. Adams
As Adams began his reelection Hamilton targets him.Hamilton published a number of pamphlets questioning the morals of Adams.Hamilton attempted to rig the election again for Pinckney.
Jefferson v. Burr
Burr and Jefferson both tied in the election.The House of representatives must decide the President. The President would have to get 9 of the 13 statesJefferson received 8 states Burr received 5.It was believed Burr would concede. He did not.Eventually Jefferson was elected.
Twelfth Amendment
Presidential elections will have separate votes for President and Vice President.
U.S. Expansion
The U.S. grew by two million in ten years. Mostly based on natural reproduction.Twenty percent of the population in the South were slaves.The areas of the country begin to take on their own regional identity.The Mississippi river was still critical to transportation
Native American Response
Tecumseh , and Prophet classified themselves as Indians for the first time.The pushed Native Americans to avoid contact with whites.They were hoping for a cultural revolution, but eventually this would fall to expansion.Including the battle at Horseshoe bend where natives were forced out ofMissippiby Andrew Jackson.
Jefferson and Native Americans
Jefferson wanted to try mend cultural bonds with Native Americans.He had hoped to set up reservations to Protective Natives during the expansion.In time thoughtiwas clear that other delegates would not support this idea.
The Jeffersonian Cabinet
Jefferson decided that the only way to have a successful Presidency he would have to select those loyal to him.As Jefferson Republicans flooded the cabinet other members like John Jay chose to leave.Jefferson entered office taking note of America’s growing financial issues.
The Jefferson plan
Jefferson thought it his views on government were the best way to handle the growing debt.This clear interest was reducing the size ofgovernemnt.
Making cuts
To deal with coming cost Jefferson decided to cut the Federal Budget.The first step was to reduce the size the NavyThe next step was to the remove the size of the military, taking it from full standing and scaling it down.
The period before the Purchase
Before the Louisiana purchase there was much concern over the southern territory.The Spanish seceded the rights to much of their southern territories to the French.With this in mind Jefferson sent representatives to try and diplomatically deal with the French.He would send future diplomat James Monroe, and Robert Livingston.
The Louisiana Purchase
Monroe expected for relations to go poorly, but was surprised by how eager the French were to sell the land.The French in reality had growing financial issues under the Napoleon reign.In the end America would buy the territory, for 15 millions dollars Jefferson was able to double the size of the country.
Resentment over the purchase
Before Jefferson committed to buying the land from the French he had quite a bit of apprehension.He felt the action would define him as a President that would use the sweeping power of the central government to achieve his goals.Some felt the same, but it seemed after the purchase that there only a few who dissented towards the decision.
Louis and Clark Expedition
The expedition was commissioned by President Thomas Jefferson shortly after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, consisting of a select group of U.S. Army volunteers under the command of Captain Meriwether Lewis and his close friend Second Lieutenant William Clark.The journeylasted from May 1804 to September 1806.Theprimarygoalwas to explore and map the newly acquired territory, find a practical route across the Western half of the continent, and establish an American presence in this territory before Britain and other European powers tried to claim it.The campaign's secondary objectives were scientific and economic: to study the area's plants, animal life, and geography, and establish trade with local Indian tribes. With maps, sketches and journals in hand, the expedition returned to St. Louis to report their findings to Jefferson
Barbary War
Another issue facing the new Jefferson Presidency was the threat of piratesMore specifically the Barbary pirates that were stationed in Tripoli.The band had terrorized much of the United states and European trade.
Barbary war continued
Eventually the band of pirates seized American ships taking their crew hostage.The band expected payment from the United States.Jefferson was unwilling to do so.
Barbary war continued
Jefferson used the military force of marines to retake the hostages.Though attack by sea was a success the marines were not prepared for the natural environment of Africa.This was the first successful outing for the America military.Many Americans would hail this success as an action that America took that other European empires had never dreamed of.
Beginning of Marbury V. Madison
As Adams left he passed the Judiciary act of 1801It created 12 new circuit courts along with judges to fill them.Adams filled the judgeships with Federalist. (Midnight appointees)The new President Jefferson and Republicans railed against these judges. Stating they were unnecessary due to the lacking amount of cases they would hear.
The court caseofMarburyV. Madison
Marbury was one of the federalist appointed judges.Then secretary of state James Madison refused to give Marbury the papers that would give him authority of a judge. (Madison believed him to be corrupt.Marbury requested that the case be heard by the supreme court.
Marbury v. MadisonThe decision
The new chief justice Marshall would preside over the case.His ruling stated that the courtdidnnot have jurisdiction some these matters. But the argument used Marbury to file the case could be linked to the unconstitutionality of the Judiciary actThis meant that the judiciary act was unconstitutional
Legacy
The key point of the case is that it developed the idea the supreme court had the power of Judicial reviewJudicial review stated that the supreme court had the power to review laws passed by government and decided if they were constitutional.
Burr controversy
Burr had always been a controversial figure.It was believed that he had planned to steal the election of 1800.That controversy only continued.Burr was allowed to very little as Vice PresidentNot a good fit for an ambitious man.Burr decided to run governor of New York
Burr vs. Hamilton
It was believed that Hamilton had entered into negotiations with high up federalists, the plan was to have New York and New Jersey Succeed from the U.S.Hamilton published a series of scathing pamphlets stating that Burr was “ A dangerous man who cannot be trusted”
BurrvsHamilton
Burr in return challenged Hamilton to a duel.Hamilton though believing it to be silly did not want his on besmirched.Hamilton met Burr in July 10, 1804 and was killed.Burr was no longer allowed to step foot in New York and New Jersey.
Burr attempt at taking the west
After the murder of Hamilton Burr was still unsatisfied with his place in the country.Eventually he entered conspiracy with General Wilkinson of the military.The idea was to have a military coup in Louisiana.This was based on the idea the citizens Louisiana were culturally different then the rest of the U.S.
The trial of Burr
As the day approached a military unit was assembled to bring to action the attempted scheme.Wilkinson lost his nerve though eventually reporting Burr.Burr stood trial before John Marshall.Marshall believed there was not enough evidence to convict Burr.
Regulating the SlaveTrdae
As Jefferson moved forward from the Burr debacle demanded that the political groups in the country developed a way to end the slave trade in America.The northerners favored a strong bill that would even make smuggling slaves into the country a capital offense.Their issue was what to do with slaves that had been confiscated by customs agents
The final bill
The final law stated that the slave trade would end, and all smuggled slaves would integrated into the state customs that they were brought into.
A break in peace
By 1803 the peace between France and Britain was broken as the two fought for superiority on land and sea.During this time traders became wealthy trading with any port that would trade with them.
Orders of Council
In time Britain created the orders of council which threatened seizure of ships and banned neutral trade.The French followed suite creating similar terms.Jefferson was offended feeling that both sides violated natural rights of a countryTheembarassmentcontinued as the French the Leopard fired on the Chesapeake.
Beginning of the Embargo Act
Jefferson decided to keep all American ships at home to stop and seizures, as well as deprive the other countries of good, especially food.Eventually Jefferson developed the idea of creating embargo, basically halting trade with Britain and France, this would hopefully bring both countries back into peaceful trade with the U.S.
Embargo Act
The Embargo act was passed in 1807, again it was black on trade with the British and The French.Jefferson thought the people would support the act. Reality people took their own chances and decided to smuggle goods any way.The government had to pass enforcement acts to try and keep people from smuggling.Eventually enforcing the Embargo act almost turned the government into a police state on the coast.The act hardly damaged the British economy.The act was repealed right before the election for Madison
James Madison
James Madison was a very intelligent man ,but had a modest personality.Madison quickly passed the intercourse act.The U.S. opened trade but placed a ban on trade with the British and French.The British diplomat Erskine negotiated sensitive issues with America.America announced a reopening of trade with Britain though Erskine did not receive approval from the crown.
Note check
What is the purpose behind the Monroe doctrine be specific.What is the ruling ofMccullohv.s. Maryland.Why were the republican party virtual unopposed in the era of good feelings? What had happened to the Federalist party, be specific.What products are being in America during early industrial America?What important technology connected the country?Explain in specifics why the Monroe presidency was known as the Era of good feelings?
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Chapter 8 The Jeffersonian and Madison Presidency