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Chapter 7_ The Classical Era in the East -

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Chapter 7
The Classical Era in the East, India and China
Page 1:Essential Questions (skip 5 lines)
1) What were the major accomplishments of the civilization of India during the “Classical Era”? (2,4,6,)2) What were the major accomplishments of the civilization of China during the “Classical Era”? (8,10)3) How did Eastern civilizations (India and China) compare with the civilizations of the West? (Greece and Rome)4) What factors contributed to the rise and fall of empires and dynasties in the East (China) and the West (Rome)? (12,14)
Page 3: Key Vocabulary: (skip 3-4 lines)
1) Aryans2) Emperor Asoka3) Confucius4) Hinduism5)MauryanEmpire6) Qin Dynasty7) reincarnation8) Gupta Empire9) Shih Huang-Ti10) caste system11) Zhou Dynasty12) Great Wall of China13) Buddha14) Mandate of Heaven15) Han Dynasty
Page 2: Empires of India
Aryan InvasionIndus River Valley Civilization CollapsesAryans conquered Dravidians that lived thereAryans1500 B.C. came across Himalayas through a mountain pass from AsiaNomadic,herded cattle, fought for resourcesContributions: iron weapons, horse drawn chariots, Sanskrit writing- taught only to wealthy higher castes
Aryan Invasion (continuation)
Moved toward Ganges River pushed Dravidians south900 B.C Aryans set up city-states in river valleys, each with its own ruler________________________________________________________HinduismHinduism- new polytheistic religion brought by the Aryans, provided and entire way of life, served as guide from birth to deathNo single text: Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita, and Vedas
Caste System
A New social orderMixing of Dravidian and Aryans led to new system of social organizationOnly Aryans could occupy a high social classPeople divided into 5 hereditary classesPriestsWarriorsLandownersPeasantsUNTOUCHABLES
Caste System (continuation)
How Caste System was designedBased on birthNo social mobilityCould not marry outside of casteUntouchables are completely outside of the social order (handled dead bodies, swept streets and animal waste)
Page 4:Buddhism
Began in N. India 500 B.C.SiddharthaGuatamawas a wealthy prince in NepalVentured outside palace walls and saw human sufferingleft wife and 2 kids in search of truth6 years of searching found suffering caused by selfish human desiresTo end suffering a person has to accept world as it is and block out desiresHe became “Enlightened One” = Buddha
Page 5:Bubble Map
Create a Bubble Map featuring the religion of Buddhism and SiddharthaGuatama.
Spread of Buddhism
Many followers attracted to BuddhismRejected the caste systemSpread to: N. India toward China, Thailand, Bhutan, Nepal, China, Korea, Japan
MauryanEmpire (321 B.C. - 232 C.E)
Shortly after Alexander the Great invaded NW India, ChandraguptaMauryaestablishes theMauryanEmpire and challenged the GreeksEmpire stretched from Afghanistan to Ganges RiverAfter Chandragupta, his grandson Asoka became the next great ruler
Loyalty from his people through acts of kindnessPeople of all religions will coexistImproved roads, built: hospitals, formal schools, shrinesPromoted BuddhismSent missionaries throughout India and beyondUpon Asoka’s death, the empire fell apart
Page 6:Gupta Empire(320 A.D. – 535 A.D.)
Gupta family became ruling familyUnited territory around Ganges RiverEncouraged peace, prosperity, trade with foreign lands--China especially200 years of Gupta rule known as “Golden Age of Hindu Culture”
“The Golden Age of Hindu Culture”
The Gupta EmpirePeriod of time marked by peace and stabilityGreat strides in art and literatureBuilt universitiesMusic and plays written in Sanskrit
Gupta Contributions
Excelled in science and mathConcept of zero, Infinity, decimal system, Arabic numeralsEarth is round, Astronomy ( earth rotates on invisible axis)Calculated solar yearPhysicians set bones and skin grafts
Gupta Empire Ends (500 A.D.)
HunsAttacked from central AsiaWarlike tribeInvades NE IndiaGupta Empire disintegrated into smaller states
Page 8: Dynasties of China (1027 B.C. – 220 A.D.)
Chinese history is divided into periods of history based upon 3 Dynasties/ruling families_________________________________________________________Zhou Dynasty(1027 B.C. – 221 B.C.)1027 the Shang were conqueredZhou dynasty took over, justifying their rule through the “Mandate of Heaven”Ruler was chosen by Heaven to overthrow bad rulerLater rulers would use this as basis for their reign and authority
Page 7:Bubble Map
Create a bubble map featuring Chinese philosophy of Confucianism.
Zhou Rulers
System of giving land to nobles in exchange for military serviceNobles became too powerful to controlCivil war beganZhou ContributionsConfucius (Confucianism)Sought to bring order to China’s social and political lifeLao Tzu: looked more to peace and inner stability for people
PhilosophyBased on what he believed was basic order of universeStressed following traditional ways, which working towards peace and harmonyLive up to your name, fulfill your social obligationsValued: obedience and order, family including children’s devotion to parents, family served as model for society, emphasized duties and good deeds
Page 10: Daoism (Taoism)
Chinese philosophy (5thcentury)Based on teachings of Lau TzuNature has a “WAY” – DAO – in which it movesYou should accept the “WAY” not try to change itIf you fight against it, it will work against youEnlightenment achieved through “non-striving”Enjoy nature, use meditation to let go of earthly concerns
Qin Dynasty(221 B.C. – 206 B.C.)
Shih Huang-ti– lord of Qin (Chin)Ruler who unified all of China through conquest1stChinese EmperorBelieved people are not good, they need strong ruler to punish wrongsHarsh ruler – rejected ConfucianismPersecuted scholars and burnt Confucian books
Page 9:Applying what you have learned
1) On page 89: How does this description of the “way” compare to Western religious ideas about “God”2) On page 85: read the Four Noble Truths. Based on that reading and this reading on Daoism, how do these religions or beliefs systems differ? How are they alike?
Qin Dynasty (continuation)
Shih’sAccomplishmentsCentralized power by dividing China into districts with own military leaderJoined walls to form Great Wall of China/protection from MongolsImmense tomb with army of terracotta/clay soldiersUNIFIED AND CENTRALIZED CHINA
Page 12: HAN DYNASTY(206 B.C. – 220 A.D)
Shih dies, people rebel (rule was harsh)Civil war breaks outHan Empire emergesHan ContributionsNew type of paper, lead glazed ceramics, silkweavings,civilservice exams
Page 11:Bubble Map
Create a bubble map featuring the accomplishments/contributions of the Han Dynasty.
Civil Service Exams
Based on Confucian TeachingsApplicants tested on knowledge of history and Confucian ideasImperial service no longer a right passed downCommoners could now move up social ladderConfucianism began to unite all govt. and upper class of China
Silk Road
Overland trade route from China to Roman EmpireMerchants carried goods by camel caravanSilk, iron, bronze in exchange for: gold, linen, glass ivory, animal hides, horses, cattleBuddhism spread into China—Cultural Diffusion
Children and Women(Han)
Wealthy families had many childrenSons could serve in govt.Daughters could marry into more wealthWealthy women treated well and influentialIn childhood obeyed their fathersIn adulthood obeyed their husbandsIn old age obeyed their sons
Han Schools
Public schools for boys onlyTaught: respect for parents (filial piety), looking after one’s parents in old age________________________________________________________
Page 14: Fall of Han Dynasty
Rebellionagainst authorityMore power given to provincial governors to appease themPower to raise armyPower to raise taxesGovernors became warlordsEconomic hardship221 last Han emperor turns into independent warlordHan China collapsed into Civil War and split apart into separate states
The End of the Empires
Why do Han and Roman Empires fall?Too large of areas to defendToo much power given to rulersIncapable rulersCorruption and unequal distribution of wealthHigh taxes to support armyConstant invasions (Rome-Germanic tribesOstrogoths, Visigoths, Vandals) and for China (Huns, Mongols)
Page 13:Compare and Contrast (skip 6 lines)
In what ways were the collapse of the Han and Roman Empires similar?2) Are there any lessons that can be learned by present-day world leaders from the factors that led to the fall of either of these 2 empires?





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Chapter 7_ The Classical Era in the East -