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Chapter 6-Analyzing the audience - gcit.enschool.org

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Chapter 6-Analyzing the audience
Audience-Centeredness
Audience-centeredness: Keeping the audience foremost in mind at every step of speech preparation and presentationObjectiveis to gain a desired response from the listenersDonot have to compromise yourbeliefsDonot have to use unethical tactics to achieve your goal
Audience-Centeredness
Keep in mind these questions to be audience centered:To whom am I speaking?Whatdo I want them to know, believe, or do as a result of my speech?Whatis the most effective way of composing and presenting my speech to accomplish that aim?
Your Classmates as an Audience
Thebest classroom speeches are those that take the audience as seriously as a lawyer, politician, or advertiser takes an audience
The Psychology of Audiences
Thespeaker must make the audience choose to pay attentionEvery speech contains 2 messages:One sent by the speakerOnereceived by the listenerWhat the speaker says is filtered through the listener’s frame of referenceListeners want to hear about things that are meaningful to themEgocentrism: The tendency of people to be concerned above all with their own values, beliefs, and well-beingHow does this affect you as a speaker?Listeners will hear and judge based on what they already know and believeYou must relate your message to your listeners
Demographic Audience Analysis
Demographicaudience analysis: Audience analysis that focuses on demographic factors such as age, gender, religion, sexual orientation, group membership, and racial ethnic or cultural backgroundThere are two steps of demographic audience analysis:Identifying the general demographic features of your audienceGauging the importance of those features to a particular speaking situationWhen used improperly, it can lead to stereotypingStereotyping: Creating an oversimplified image of a particular group of people, usually by assuming that all members of a group are alike
Demographic Audience Analysis
Consider the following demographic factors:AgeSpeaking to an older audience vs. a younger audienceGenderTake in current gender attitude and practicesBe aware of both gender differences and similaritiesAvoid generalizationsSexual OrientationBe mindful of language, examples, and other elements that may exclude listeners with same-sex partnersReligionCurrent events around the world showreligious views areamong the mostemotionallychargedofall human concernsThere is greatdiversitywithin different faithsConsider thereligious orientation ofyourlistenersRacial, Ethnic, and Cultural BackgroundSome listeners may have perspectives that will affect how they are listening to the speechGroup MembershipKnowing the groups or memberships you audience is in may give excellent clues about your listeners interests and attitudes
Situational Audience Analysis
Situationalaudience analysis: Audience analysis that focuses on situational factors such as size of the audience, the physical setting of the speech, and the disposition of the audience towards the topic, the speaker, and the occasionConsider the following demographic factors:SizeThe larger the audience, the more formal your presentation must beAudience size may affect you language, choice of requests, and use of visual aidsPhysical SettingKnow in advance of any difficulties in the physical settingDo everything you can to control the influence of the physical settingIf the physical setting is not desirable, work hard to adapt to the aspects
Situational Audience Analysis
Disposition Toward the TopicInterestAssess the interest in advance and adjust your speech accordinglyIf interest is not there, take special steps to involve the audienceKnowledgeOften a strong correlation between interest in a topic and knowledge on itAudiences like learning about a subject that interests themYour ability to talk more technically or more trivially on a topic depends on your audience’s knowledge of the subjectAttitudeAttitude: A frame of mind in favor of or opposed to a person, policy, belief, institution, etc.If you know in advance the prevailing attitude among members of your audience, you can adjust your speech to address the concerns or answer their objections
Situational Audience Analysis
Disposition Toward the SpeakerAnaudience’s response to a message is colored by their perception of the speakerThe more competent, honest, and thoughtful the listeners perceive the speaker to be, the more they will respond positively to the messageDispositionToward the OccasionDo not exploit a situation for your own purposes with a speechThe occasion will dictate how long a speech should be
Getting Information about the Audience
AudienceAnalysis QuestionnaireThere are 3 major types of questions to choose fromFixed-alternativequestionsScale questionsOpen-ended questions
Getting Information about the Audience
Fixed-alternativequestionsQuestionsthat offer a fixed choice between 2 or more alternativesFindclear answers but ambiguous answersDo you know what the insanity plea is in the U.S Legal System?Yes______No_____Not sure_______
Getting Information about the Audience
Scalequestions:Questions that require responses at fixed intervals along a scale ofanswersAllowmore leeway in respondingGetsyou at the strength of an audience’sattitudes
Getting Information about the Audience
Open-ended questions:Questions that allow respondents to answer however theywantGivesmaximum leeway in respondingIncreases the likelihood of getting answers that do not give the information you needHow do you feel about the parking situation at GCIT?Itis common for questionnaires to utilize all 3 types of questions
Getting Information about the Audience
When putting one together keep the following in mind:Planthe questionnaire carefully to elicit precisely the information you needUseall 3 types of questionsMakesure the questions are clear and unambiguousKeepthe questionnaire relatively brief
Adapting to the Audience
Thereare 2 stages in the process of audience adaptationAudience Adaptation Before the SpeechRemember who the listeners will beAssess how you audience is likely to respond to what you say in your speechAdjust what you say to make it as clear, appropriate, and convincing as possibleAnticipate how your audience will respondAudience Adaptation During the SpeechIf something unexpected happens do not panic. Modify based on the challenge and continueExamples:Projector is brokenYour time is more or less than plannedSomeone else has your topicLook for audience feedback and adjust
Now You try!
Create a 5 QuestionAudienceAnalysisQuestionnaire for your speech topic that your classmates will take following these guidelines:Plan the questionnaire carefully to elicit precisely the information you needUse all 3 types of questionsMake sure the questions are clear and unambiguousKeep the questionnaire relatively brief

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Chapter 6-Analyzing the audience - gcit.enschool.org