Erik Erikson (1902-1994) emigrated from Germany to American and set up practice as a child analyst in Boston, MA in 1933.
As an ego psychologist, Erikson emphasized the role of culture and society, and the conflicts that take place within the ego.
Erikson was influenced by Freud, focusing on the ego where Freud's focus was on the ID.
Erik Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
By: Samantha Lee
Erik extended Sigmund's thoughts and focused on the adaptive and creative characteristics of the ego through the entire lifespan.
By expanding Freud's stages from infancy to adulthood, Erikson believes there is a great amount of room for growth and development.
Erikson emphasized the adolescent period...
feeling it is a crucial stage for developing a person's identity.
Freud focused on the sexual development...
Erikson was interested in how children socialize and the affects on their sense of self.
The psychological needs that conflict with the needs of society...
are crises of a psychosocial nature that occurs at each stage of development.
Successful completion of each phase can lead to a healthy personailty and the knowledge of basic virtues.
Failure to successfully complete a stage leads to a reduced ability to complete next stages and beyond, in addition to a more unhealthy personality and sense of self.
These stages can be resolved at a later time.
STAGE 1- INFANCY
1 Year Old
Trust vs Mistrust
Trust is developed on dependability and quality of the caregiver, if developed successfully, the child will feel safe and secure with the world.
Inconsistent caregivers, results in fear and belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable.
Successful balance of both trust and mistrust the child will acquire Hope.
STAGE 2- EARLY CHILDHOOD
Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
1 Year Old
3 Years Old
Autonomy can be developed by allowing the child to gain independance and personal control.
Completing this stage successfully, will leave the child feeling secure and confident
Failure can lead to a sense of inadequacy and self-doubt.
Achieving balance can lead to Will, where the child can act with intentions within reasons and limits.
Stage 3- Preschool Age
3 Years Old
5 Years Old
Initiative vs Guilt
Children learn to assert power and control through play and social interactions
Success at this stage leads to the feeling of being capable and able to lead others.
Failure leaves the child with a sense of guilt, self-doubt, and the lack of initiative.
An ideal balance of initiave and the willingness to work with others is where the quality of Purpose comes to life.
STAGE 4- SCHOOL AGE
5 Years Old
11 Years Old
Industry vs Inferiority
The development of sense and pride in a child's abilities and accomplishments are founded through social interactions.
Encouragement from teachers and parents develops a feeling of competence and belief in their skills
Little to no encouragement leads to doubt in abilities and less successful.
With successful balance in this stage leads to competence and the belief in abilities to handle task
STAGE 5- ADOLESCENCE
Identity vs Role Confusion
Exploration of independence and a sense of self is developed
12 Years Old To
18 Years Old
Adolescense that receive proper encouragement and reinforcement will emerge with a strong sense of self and the feeling of independence and control.
If there is failure, the adolescent will remain unsure of their beliefs and desires, leading them to feel insecure and confused in the future.
When this stage is completed, Fidelity is found, the adolescent will have the ability to live by society's standards and expectations
STAGE 6- YOUNG ADULTHOOD
19 Years Old
40 Years Old
Intimacy vs Isolation
Developing close, committed relationships with others, will form secure relationships with success during this stage.
With a strong sense of identity that has been learned from previous stages, it is important to develop intimate relationships
Those that have a poor sense of self, tend to have less committed relationships, in addition to suffering from emotional isolation, loneliness, and depression
Success in this stage leads to the virtue of Love, along with the ability to form lasting, meaningful relationships.
STAGE 7- MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
Generativity vs Stagnation
40 Years Old
65 Years Old
Continued growth in building lives, focusing on careers and family.
Success during this stage, allows the adult to feel like the are contributing to the world by being active at home and in the community
If failure happens during this stage, the adult does not obtain the skills needed and will feel uninvolved and unproductive in the world.
If balanced successfully, Care is the virtue that is obtained. Being proud of accomplishments, watching children grow up, and developing a sense of unity are important to accomplish.
STAGE 8- MATURITY
Ego Integrity vs Despair
65 Years Old and Up
Focused on reflection back at life
Integrity comes to those who feel proud of their accomplishments. Looking back on life with few regrets and a general feeling of satisfaction. The have attained wisdom, even when confronting death.
Failure through this stage, leads to the individual feel as if they have wasted their life, have many regrets, feel bitterness and despair.
(birth to present)
Music- Southern Comfort Zone by Brad Paisley