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Vertical Circulation - City Tech OpenLab

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Team 1
Vertical Circulation
Team Members
MarieBaretsky
Robert Davis
DavidEncarnacion
HadizaDjibring
History
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1854- Elisha Otis demonstrates his safety brake at the Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations at the Crystal Palace in NY. Elevator ropes at the time were generally made out of fiber and if the rope broke there was nothing to stop it. The introduction of a safety brake helped alleviate the publics fear of falling.1857- The first public elevator is installed at the E.V.Haughwout& Co. store in NY. It serviced five floors and traveled at an average rate of 40 feet per min.1889- The first electric elevator is installed at the Demarest Building in NYC replacing the steam engine with an electric motor.
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1894- The Otis Elevator Co. installs the first automatic electric push-button elevator.1892- Early predecessors to the escalator are invented and patented. Jesse Reno’s “Endless conveyor or Elevator” and George Wheeler’s “inclined elevator”1900- Otis Elevator Co. trademarks the term “escalator”.1900 Paris Exposition uses movable ramps and walkways to aid in circulation.1902- Flatiron building is built with elevators servicing 21 floors.1913- Woolworth building rises 57 stories.1920’s- Ward-Leonard system of electric motor speed and control allows for smooth transitioning between accelerating and decelerating
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Hydraulic Elevators
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Hydraulic Elevators:• Pumps provide oil pressure for lift. An electric motor pumps the oil into a cylinder to move the piston• They are used in low rise buildings up to 50 feet high or 5 stories maximum.• Speeds vary from 25 to 150 fpm (Feet Per Minute)
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Hydraulic Elevator Types
In-Ground:This type has a cylinder that extends into the groundthesame height to which the elevator is to be lifted.Hole-Less:This type uses telescoping pistons on one or both sidesofthe cab to liftit. Thecylinder stands within the hoist way and doesnotrequire a drilled hole. This class is typically limited to under 40’ of travel.Roped:Thistype is similar to a traction type elevator. The cab is elevatedbyan attached rope that is pulled by pistons.
No wires, cables, or overhead machinery is required for the In-GroundandHole-less types. A machine room is required to house both the oilstoragetank and thepump. Theslow speeds of hydraulic elevators makestheideal for freight elevators up to 50 tons.
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Hydraulic Elevator Types
In-Ground
Hole-Less
Roped
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How Hydraulics Work
The cylinder is connected to afluid-pumpingsystem.Thehydraulic system has three parts:Atank(thefluid reservoir)Apump, powered by an electric motorAvalvebetween the cylinder and the reservoirThepump forces fluid from the tank into a pipe leading to the cylinder.Whenthe valve is opened, the pressurized fluid will take the path of leastresistanceand return to the fluid reservoir. But when the valve is closed,thepressurized fluid has nowhere to go except into the cylinder.Asthe fluid collects in the cylinder, it pushes the piston up, liftingthecar.
Working Diagram
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Machine Room Sizes
Hydraulic elevatorscome in a widevarietyofspeeds,capacitiesandtravelheights. These options determine thesize andhorsepowerof thepowerunit, which in turn determines thesize of the machineroom. The mostdesirablemachineroom locationis on thelowestdoor served,adjacentto theelevator hoist-way.If necessary,itmaybelocated remotely fromthehoist-way.
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Safety Systems
All elevatorsystems should be equipped with a complete safety system.Someof the safety systems that most elevators currently on the market utilize are:builtin brakingsystemsa governor (speed monitoring device)electromagnetic brakesanda shock absorbersystemThesesubsystems are easier to install in roped elevatorsystems.Anothersafety feature in most elevators is a sensor on the door thatensuresthat nothing is caught in the doorway when the doors are closing.When motion or the presence of an object is sensed the doors go to anopenposition for a specified number of seconds. Then the doors again try to close.
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Pros and Cons
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The main advantage of hydraulic systems is they can easilymultiplythe relatively weak force of the pump to generate the stronger force needed to lift the elevatorcar.But these systems suffer from two majordisadvantages. The main problem is thesize of the equipment. In order for the elevator car to be able to reach higher floors, you have to make the piston longer. The cylinder has to be a little bit longer than the piston, of course, since the piston needs to be able to collapse all the way when the car is at the bottom floor. In short, more stories means a longer cylinder.The problem is that the entire cylinder structure must be buried below the bottom elevator stop. This means you have to dig deeper as you build higher. This is an expensive project with buildings over a few stories tall. To install a hydraulic elevator in a 10-story building, for example, you would need to dig at least nine stories deep!The other disadvantage of hydraulic elevators is that they’re fairlyinefficient. It takes a lot of energy to raise an elevator car several stories, and in a standard hydraulic elevator, there is no way to store this energy. Theenergy of position(potential energy) only works to push the fluid back into the reservoir. To raise the elevator car again, the hydraulic system has to generate the energy all over again.
Traction Elevators (Pull Elevators).
Hadiza D.
The Most Common type of Elevators.Cars pulledup by means of rolling steel ropes over adeeply groovedpulley, commonly called asheave.The weight of car balanced by a counter weight.Sometimes cars built in pairs and synchronized to move in opposite directions, and serve as each other’s counterweigh.Traction elevators use steel cords or flat steel ropes a lot of traction elevators prefer the use of flat steel ropes because theyare extremely light due to its carbon fiber core and a high-friction coating, and does not require any oil or lubricant. Because of these qualities, elevator energy consumption in high-rise buildings can be cut significantly.
Hadiza D.
Different types of Elevators
Hydraulic Elevators.Traction Elevators.Climbing Elevators.Pneumatic Elevators.
Different types of Traction Elevators
Geared Elevators.Gear-Less Elevators.Machine-Room-Less Elevator.
Geared
Gearless
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Geared Traction Elevator.
The Gear Box Is attached to the Motor, to drive the wheel and pull the rope.These elevators typically operate at speeds from 38 to 152 meters (125-500ft) per minute and carry loads of up to 13,600 kilograms (30,000lb).Machines Driven by AC or DC electric motors hoists.Geared machines use worm gears to control mechanical movement of elevator cars by "rolling" steel hoist ropes over a drive sheave which is attached to a gearbox driven by a high speed motor.An electrically controlled brake between the motor and the reduction unit stops the elevator, holding the car at the desired floor level.
Hadiza D.
Geared Traction Elevator Configuration.
The GovernorThe governor is a device actuated by the centrifugal force of whirling weights opposed by gravity. It is used in elevators as a standard safety measure to set an emergency mechanical brake that brings the car to a stop when the car exceeds a safe speed. A set of redundant safety features (both mechanical and electrical) are used in the elevator industry to ensure that cars do not run away. These safety measures depend on local and national codes and vary from country to country and even state to state. The interested reader is invited to read [1] should he/she be interested in learning more about them.Compensating RopesCompensating ropes are used to compensate for the change in hoisting rope weight that occurs as a function of the position of the car in longhoist ways.Basically, the use of compensating ropes insures that, for a given load, the motor sees the same inertia at all stops in thehoist way.Double/Single WrappingThe use of double wrapping provides substantially increased hoist rope traction surface area and is desirable in elevators with heavy loads. Hoist traction occurs between the hoisting ropes and grooves that are cast in the drive sheave. Figure 4 presents a cross section of two drive sheaves and represents the two most prevalent groove types used in the industry. As a rule of thumb the single wrap machines use the "V" groove and the double wrap machines use the "U" groove.
Hadiza D.
Gearless Traction Elevator.
There is a wheel attached to the motor.These elevators typically operate at speeds greater than 500 feet perminute.Abrake is mounted between the motor and drive sheave (or gearbox) to hold the elevator stationary at a floor.
Hadiza D.
Gearless Overhead.
1.1 Gearlesstraction elevators are typically used in high speed applications for tallhoist ways.This gearless hoist machine consists of the traction sheave, brake drum and motor armature or rotor all mounted on a common shaft supported by two roller bearings. The gearless motor can be either A-C or D-C. They can be single or double wrapped as shown in Figure 1.
Gearless Overhead.
2.1 Gearlesstraction elevators are also used in high speed applications for tallhoistwayshowever they are typically used for shorterhoistwaysand lower speeds than their 1:1 cousins. Like the 1:1 machine the 2:1 gearless elevator consists of a traction sheave, brake drum and motor armature or rotor all mounted on a common shaft supported by two roller bearings. The main difference is the roping configuration which allows for a motor rotational speed that is double that employed in the 1:1 machine for the same car speed (and hence the use of smaller motor frames for the same horsepower). The gearless motor can be either A-C or D-C. They can be single or double wrapped as shown in Figure 2.
Hadiza D.
Machine-Room-Less Elevators:
Theyare typically traction elevators that do not have a dedicated machine room above the elevator shaft.Themachine sits in the override space and the controls sit above the ceiling adjacent to the elevatorshaft.Designed for buildings between about two and 30stories,this system employs a smaller sheave than conventional geared and gearlesselevators.The reduced sheave size, together with a redesigned machine, allows the machine to be mounted within thehoistwayitself—eliminating the need for a bulky machine room on the roof.
The true MRL gearless traction model has been made possible by two main factors: the compact controller innovation and the inspection/test panel. In these true MRL models, compact controllers fit inside the wall of the top elevator landing, and most necessary test and maintenance features can be concealed behind a panel in the elevator entrance to give building personnel, elevator mechanics, and city or state inspectors access to the critical items they need.
Hadiza D.
Traction Elevators Disadvantages:
Installation costs can be 15-25% higher than the hydraulic elevators. Traction elevators might be initially offered at a low and convenient price and then skyrocketed with outrages service charges.Maintenance is difficult because the machine is located in the headroom of the shaft and reaching it can be a challenge. Serious accidents during construction and servicing of the elevator are highly probable. If the car is stuck, the machine cannot be serviced from the top of the car, and insecure methods may then be needed.Traction elevators are initially offered at reasonable prices and the low income is later attained through frequent servicing and high-priced spare parts. Obtaining the spare parts can be a nightmare since servicing may only be performed by the original installer or by their service partners.Disregard of Safety Requirements: Rescue of passengers during an emergency situation can be challenging, because the traction elevators require special knowledge and the machine is difficult to reach in the shaft. Temperature and humidity conditions inside the shaft may be tragic and can easily affect the electronic components which might cause more frequent break-downs and servicing. A short circuit to the motor or fire can result in entrapped passengers in the elevator. The fire itself might not be deadly but rather the smoke within the shaft.
Traction Elevatorsadvantages:
It uses less energy than hydraulic elevators because the motor is only used to overcome friction - there is no lifting involved because of the counterweight system. The only time the motor is used in traction elevators to lift the cab is when the counterweight is not even with the cab weight.The most inefficient of these elevators are older models that use direct-current electricity - used because it is easy to control speed with DC current.Most of the energy used by these elevators happens when it is idle from the heating, cooling and lighting systems. Using LED lighting and timers for fans will help reduce the energy use.To put the energy use in relative terms, the energy used in light sensor stairways exceeds that of the energy used for a traction elevator ride.
Escalators
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HISTORY
Escalator are a type transportation device that moves people from one level to another without human physical movement. It’s a moving staircase with steps that move up or down different levels, that use a conveyor belt and track which keep the step horizontal for the pedestrians. Thus the escalator began as an amusement and not as a transportation system that is being use today. The first patent relating to an escalator-like machine was granted in 1859 to a Massachusetts man for a steam driven unit. On March 15 1892, Jesse Reno patented his moving stairs or inclined elevator as he called it.
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1900’s – Present
Otis Elevator Company produced the first commercial escalator in 1899.
1900’s Escalator, few difference, yet still the same concept of transportation.
Escalator of present day. This is a picture taken from Broadway Junction. Since the invention of escalator, it has not change. But the rise and run of it has change over time to accommodate different level of floor height due to technology.
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Balustrades in "solid" usually #4 or #8 stainless steel and bronze or glass with thickness either 3/8" or 1/2".Speed. 100ftper minute, which is the maximum speed.Step widths in 24-in, 32-in and 40-in.Microprocessor based controller.Maximum travel distance varies with manufacturer.Painted steps in silver and blackHigh-impact step inserts in yellow and blackFloor Plate in aluminum and stainless steelSafety features. (See Safety Features sidebar below.)
Specifications
CODE CLEARANCE
Design & Specifications
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24 inch wideescalators accommodate a single person without room for any extra items or people. These are generally used in low traffic areas or where space is tight.
32 inch wideescalators accommodate a single person and a suitcase or package.  These are used at moderate traffic areas.
40 inch wideescalators accommodate two people side-by-side and allow a person to pass a stationary person.  These are recommended for high trafficapplications.
Specifications
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Spiral Escalators
In1985 Mitsubishi Electric installed the world's first practical spiral escalator in Osaka, Japan. Sincethen they haveinstalled a number of spiral escalators in public complexes throughoutJapan, Asia, and in the United States. Spiral escalators are space-efficient, offering commercial developers new options in public space design, be it for shopping malls, hotels, or business offices. They increase the amount of usable floor space and add to a building's reputation and value.
Corner Plan
Opening Plan
Specification Chart
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Building Code- Chapter 30
3002.2 Number of elevators in a hoistway.Where four or more elevator cars serve all or the same portion of a building, the elevators shall be located in no fewer that two separate hoistways. Not more that four elevator cars shall be located in a single hoistway.3002.4 Elevator car to accommodate ambulance stretcherWhere elevators are provided in buildings four or more stories above grade plane or four or more stories below grade plane, at least one elevator shall be provided for fire department emergency access to all floors. The elevator shall be of such a size to accommodate a 24-inch by 84-inch ambulance stretcher in the horizontal, open position and shall be identified by the international symbol for emergency medical services (star of life). The symbol shall not be less that 3 inches high. And placed on both sides of the hoistway door frame
(specsandcodes.typepad.com/the_code_corner/2012/02/elevators.html)
3002.7 Common enclosure with stair wayElevators shall not be in a common shaft enclosure with a stair way.3003.3.2 Number of elevatorsA number of elevators shall be kept available at every floor for the sole use of the Fire Department. This requirement shall apply to the following types of buildings:High-rise buildings with occupancies classified in Groups A, B, E, I, F, H, M and SBuildings with Group B occupancies with a gross area of 200,000 square feetBuildings with a main use or dominant occupancy in Group R-1 or R-2
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3003.3.2.1 Three or fewer elevatorsWhere a floor is serviced by three or fewer elevators, every car shall be kept available for sole use by the Fire Department3003.3.2.2 More than three elevatorsWhere a floor is serviced by more that three elevator cars, at least three elevator cars with a total rated load capacity of not less that 6,000lbs shall be kept available for the sole use of the Fire Department. If the total load capacity of all cars servicing the floor is less that 6,000lbs, all such cars shall be kept available for sole use of the Fire Department
ADA Standards Chapter 4 section 407
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(http://www.ada.gov/2010ADAstandards_index.htm)
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What to Consider
Pedestrian traffic:What is your peak travel time?How many people do you need to service?What is an acceptable travel time?Space:Occupying a minimum footprint in the buildingRecommended:6,000lb capacity with 60 in center opening doors.Accommodate 25-40% of building occupancy for classrooms and 20% for laboratories during a 5 min period.Interval time between 40-50 sec
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Probable stops-How often the elevator is likely to make based on number of floors and number of passengersRunning Time-How long it takes the elevator to travel from floor to floor including stopping and starting based on floor height and elevator speed
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(StrakoschandCaporale74)
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Transfer Times-How long it takes to load and unload the elevator.Door Operating Time-How long it takes the elevator doors to open and close.
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Example Calculation
Given: 7 story buildingTyp. floor height is 12ft500 fpm elevator22 passengers up22 passengers downBuilding Occupancy 1,500 people60in center opening doorsCalculate: Total time for an elevator tripWaiting timeNumber of elevators needed
Required: Accommodate 20% of building occupancy during 5 min peak rushInterval (waiting time) between 40-50 sec
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Total Time= Time up + Time down + Standing timeTime Up= (Running time per floor) X (Number of stops)Calculating Running time/ floor= 4.4 sec/floor
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(StrakoschandCaporale74)
Standing time= Lobby time + Transfer time + Door operation timeLobby time=18 sec for 20 people + 1.6 sec for 2 additionalTransfer time=3 sec for 2 passengers + 1 sec every additional3+1= 4 sec/stop x 6 stops= 24 sec total timeDoor operation time for 60 in center open door=6.5 sec/stop x 6 stops= 39 sec19.6 sec lobby + 24 sec transfer +39 sec door = 82.6 secAdd 10% for inefficiency= 82.6 x 1.10= 90.86 sec
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(StrakoschandCaporale75)
(StrakoschandCaporale76)
Running Time Up= 26.4 secStanding Time Up= 90.86 secRunning Time Down= 26.4 secStanding Time Down= + 90.86 secTotal round trip time= 234.5 secPassengers up= 22Passengers down= + 22Total # of passengers= 441 Elevator= 44 people/234.5 sec
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For our calculations let’s assume running time and standing time up is equal to running and standing time down
Five min capacity=5min x 60 sec/min= 300 secWe need to accommodate 20% of the building occupancy1,500 people x 0.2= 300 people300/56= 5.3 = 6 elevators needed234.5 sec/6 elevators= 39 sec Interval
References
CalculationsStrakosch, George R., and RobertCaporale, ed.The Vertical Transportation Handbook. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2010Codehttp://www.ada.gov/2010ADAstandards_index.htmhttp://www2.iccsafe.org/states/newyorkcity/Building/Building-Frameset.htmlhttp://specsandcodes.typepad.com/the_code_corner/2012/02/elevators.htmlHydraulic ElevatorsBuilding Systems: Mechanical, Electrical, Plumbing, Fire Safety & Communication Systems, Lighting & AcousticsWendell C. Edwards, Chapter 11, pg. 260-261https://www.isr.umd.edu/~austin/ense621.d/projects04.d/project-elevator.html(System requirements)http://longelevator.com/images/hydraulg.jpg(In ground)http://www.bpelevator.com/html/Diagrams.html(BP Elevator Co.)http://www.landmarkelevator.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/elevator313.jpg(Picture for cover page)http://www.foxelevators.com/hydraulic-elevator.html(Fox Elevators)http://www.texashydraulics.com/images/construction-grade-cylinder.png(Section of cylinder)http://www.edgeroamer.com/sweethaven/mechanics/hydraulics01/default.asp?iNum=0401(How hydraulic cylinders work)http://static.howstuffworks.com/flash/elevator-hydraulic.swf(Working Hydraulic Elevator Diagram)http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/engines-equipment/elevator1.htm(how hydraulics work)http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/engines-equipment/elevator6.htm(Safety)http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/engines-equipment/elevator2.htm(Pros and Cons)
Team 1
Traction Elevatorshttp://elevation.wikia.com/wiki/Traction_elevatorshttp://www.esconelevators.com/tractionelevator.aspxhttp://www.apicsllc.com/apics/Sr_7/SR_7.htmlEscalatorshttp://www.archtoolbox.com/materials-systems/vertical-circulation/escalators.htmlhttp://continuingeducation.construction.com/article.php?L=14&C=455&P=1http://www.kone.us/search-results.aspx?search=escaltor(Then select first link to download which is a {.PDF} )http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blescalator.htmhttps://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/?pli=1#inbox/14898e6945a15c77http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CB4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.bd.gov.hk%2Fenglish%2Fdocuments%2Fcode%2FBWLE2011e.pdf&ei=hGIgVOO3A-qJsQSO_YLgDw&usg=AFQjCNH64-PIOOOZGnxddgpItQzj8gJr6g&sig2=jWGDB0fQB5wT_7qxxjRY4g
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Vertical Circulation - City Tech OpenLab