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Section A_ Exercise and Sport Physiology

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Section A: Exercise and Sport Physiology
6. Principles of training
Syllabus
Specificity, progression, overload, reversibility, moderation, and varianceThe physiological implications of a warm up and cool downPeriodisationof training to include the macro,mesoand micro cycleAwareness of the implications of the principles when applied to the candidate’s own training
“MrsVopp” who is “Testing” the “WC” (toilet)Mrs = moderation, reversibility, specificityVopp= variation, overload, progression andperiodisationTesting = an appropriate testWC = warm up and cool down
Mnemonic
The “M” is for finding the MIDPOINTToo much training = overuse injuries and burn out (physical and mental)Too little training = few adaptations will be achievedOverload = body works harder than normal to cause adaptation
Moderation
Muscle cell ATROPHY takes place about 48hrs after inactivityAdaptations (fitness) gained will be reversed in 1/3 of the time it took to gain themFast fitness gains are quicker to reverseAerobic adaptations reverse quicker than anaerobic adaptations
Reversibility
Choice of training must reflect demands of the sport/activitySpecificity can be applied in 2 ways:The individualThe sport/activity
Specificity
Specificity
INDIVIDUAL
SPORT/ACTIVITY
Genetic variationEach performer has a different rate of adaptation in response to different types of training
Predominant energy systemsMovement patternsMuscle fibre typeMuscles/joints used
Ensures experience is fresh/motivatingHelps prevent repetitive strain/overuse injuriese.g. stress fractures / shin splints
Variance
Achieved by adjusting/increasing FITTFrequencyIntensityTimeType
Overload
To ensure the body’s fitness capacity increases further, the overload needs to be gradually increased to keep the body adapting
Progression
Periodisationis the organised division of training into a number of specific blocks, periods or phasesThe objective is to ensure athletes progressively develop to reach a skill/physiological peak at the correct timeSimple way to look at itPre-seasonCompetitionOff season
Periodisation
Macro-cycleMeso-cycleMicro-cycle
Divisions withinPeriodisation
Longer term plan of training aimed at achieving a long term goal/objectiveTypically is a single-year block of trainingMega-cycle = several years
Macro-cycle
Medium term plan of training typically lasting between 4 and 16 weeksGenerally looked upon asPre-seasonCompetitionOff-season* All of these “seasons” aremeso-cycles and its possible to have ameso-cycle within this! *
Meso-cycle
Short term plan of training typically lasting one weekA micro-cycle is simply a number of training sessions which form a recurrent unite.g. an athlete training 3 times a week would have a micro-cycle consisting of 3 unitse.g. one session of training with 2 aims may require a session made up of 2 units
Micro-cycle
Aside from the MAIN AIM of ensuring the athlete achieves peak performance at the correct time…Periodisationensures that many of the PRINCIPLES of training are applied when planning a programme
Benefits ofPeriodisation
Preparation mentally and physicallyConsists of 3 phases:Pulse-raising activities: aerobicsubmaximalexercise, in order to redistribute blood from organs to muscles.Mobility: controlled joint movement should rehearse activity movement patterns to help lubricate joint structures.Stretching: active muscles used in the training exercise should be stretched.
Warm Up
An active cool down should follow any activity/training to help speed up the recovery process to a pre-exercise state.Consists of 2 phases:Pulse lowering activitiesStretching of active muscles
Cool Down
Prepares cardio-respiratory andmusculo-skeletal systems for more intense exercise in the following ways:
Benefits of a Warm Up
It increases:Muscle temp. = increases oxygen dissociation, nerve impulse conduction and contraction = improved muscle force, speed and reactionsEnzyme activityRelease of synovial fluidElasticity of muscleRedistribution of blood flow
Warm Up Benefits
It reduces:Risk of injuryEarly onset of anaerobic work = build up of lactic acid and early fatigue
Warm Up Benefits
It maintains venous return, stroke volume, cardiac output, minute ventilation and blood pressureIt gradually reduces muscle temperatureStretching returns muscles to their pre-exercise lengthReduces DOMSFlushes capillaries with oxygenated bloodSpeeds up removal of lactic acid
Benefits of a Cool Down
Multi-stage fitness testPWC 170Used to identify aerobic capacity
Fitness Tests
Abdominal sit up testPress up testIn 60 secondsStrength endurance
Fitness Tests
1 rep maxGrip dynamometerMaximum strength
Fitness Tests
Vertical jumpUsed to identify explosive strength
Fitness Tests
Wingate cycle testUsed to identify dynamic strength
Fitness Tests
SkinfoldcalliperBMIElectricalimpedenceHydrostatic weighing tankUsed to identify body composition
Fitness Tests
Sit and reachGoniometerUsed to identify flexibility
Fitness Tests

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Section A_ Exercise and Sport Physiology