Genderand theWorld Development Report on ConflictSanam NaraghiAnderliniJune 2010
Theme 1: The Continuum of Violence
Gender Inequality as Indicator of State Violence(1954-94) : Higher GE inc. % of women in leadership less likely use of military forceM-F life expectancy ratios indicator of fragility (higher development/higher female life expectancy)Deterioration of women’s security early sign of crisis
The Continuum From Domestic to Public Violence
Exposure to childhood violence – strong link to adult aggressionLearnt behavior in childhood correlated to violence in adulthood.Useof coercive and antisocial measures to resolve conflictincreased antisocial aggression in children.Youth (w/m) joining gangs/armed groups to flee abuse at home / seek revenge for death of loved ones.Recruitment into armed groups often through social/ familial networks.Armed groups / gangs tap into crisis of identity/masculinity.
The Continuum From Public to Domestic Violence
Post conflict – levels of public and private violence high (and higher in some cases e.g. El Salvador)- PTSD/ Alcohol/drugs- Better reporting / more evident as wider violence subsides.Sexual Gender Based Violence (SGBV)very prominent:OpportunisticSocio-culturally condoned/toleratedLinked to political and economic violenceTactical weapon of war (menv. men across women)Ideological – men targeting/subjugating women.Perpetrators often known – state security/police/ armed opposition groups.Long term impact of SGBV – health, education, social costs
Theme 2: Gender Issues in Conflict & Transition
Changes in:Gender Roles –w/mevery day jobsGender identity – expectations of behavior (masculine/feminine)Gendered Institutions (e.ghousehold, community, even state)Gender Ideology (cultural, political changes – e.g. religious extremism/ growth in women’s movementsImplications & Paradoxes:Women confidence & increased physical vulnerabilityMen loss of identity/masculinity & militarized identitiesGaps between social expectations & economic realityGap between responsibility and power (e.g. FHH no property rights)
Theme 2: Gender Issues in Conflict -Transitions & Traditions
Stress & Capabilities:Need to support women but not overburden or put at riskMen’s crisis of identity also needs response – econ/pyscho-social /culturalTransitions opportunity for change and support to new voices – e.g. women leaders in community/ change in education/security sector/ more inclusive processesTensions/backlash from political/armed elite to maintain exclusionary systems - weaken civil societyIncreased gender balance & strong civil society in politics– indicator of good governance – but…Focus on ‘military security’ overshadows/trumps focus on strengthening state/society foundations from ground up.
Theme 3: Doing Better
Policy level – significant progress2000-09 – 4 UN Security Council Resolutions (1325 first one)Call for women/ civil society inclusion in peace making/recovery and conflict preventionRecognition of sexual violence as war crime & a threat to peace /securityScr1888 (09) heavy emphasis on gender /education/health post conflictPractice still lagging - Demand at sub & transnational – states and multilaterals poor response. Triple A syndrome:Apathy, Adhockery, Amnesia
Theme 3: Doing Better
Better analysis of situation - General lack of awareness about conflict/gender/sector specific impactMatch funding to needs –only 8% of budgets ofPCNAsmention genderSocial protection/Hrights50% budget is gendered but receives only 4% ofp-conflict funds.Need emphasis on conflict prevention & SGBV preventionUse of existing national legislation/policies inc. CEDAW ratificationAcknowledge use of international norms at local levelUse of local cultural / religious contexts e.g. Justice key theme in Islam/ education & equal pay forw/min Islam.Consultations with women – inclusion of stakeholdersOutreach to men – partnershipsCross – country learning/scaling upGender & conflict expertise/advisers
The Big Gaps
PREVENTION2. Much known about causes and impact of conflictLimited documentation/evaluation of effective responses/coping strategiesFar less attention to ingredients/factors that contribute to resiliency against violence.Without this always danger of doing harm to existing capacities & actors.