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Gender, Number, and Articles in Spanish
Gender and Number
Classifying words as masculine or feminine and singular or plural
Lesson Objectives
Classify words as masculine or feminine based on word endingsMake singular words pluralDifferentiate between definite and indefinite articles in Spanish and explain their usageUse correct articles that agree in gender and number
Gender and Number
In Spanish, all objects have gender and areconsidered masculine or feminine.Gender can be determined by word endings.
Gender can be determined by looking at the end of a word.
Masculine endings
o(e.g.,libro)most consonants(e.g.,borrador)
Feminine endings
a(puerta)ión(instrucción)d(usually-tad or -dad; these are like the English -ty)
Gender
Most common exceptions:words that are actually masculine:eldía(day),elmapa(map),certain words ending in-ma (poema,sistema,programa)common feminine exception: lamano(hand)
Let’s identify these as masculine (M) or feminine (F).
MochilaDirecciónBancoParedPizarrón
F
F
F
M
M
On page1of your notes, identify each word as (F)eminineor (M)asculine.
1. _____lápiz6. ____silla2. _____bolígrafo7. ____papel3. _____pizarra8. ____cuaderno4. _____ professor 9. ____reloj5. _____dirección10. ____electricidad
Number agreement
In Spanish, all objects have number:singular (1 thing)plural (more than 1)To make a word plural:Add 's' for words ending in vowels (libro->libros)Add'es'forconsonants(pizarrón -> pizarrones)Words that end in 'z': changez -> c and add -es(lápiz->lápic-  ->lápices)Words that end in 's': don't change the ending, just the article (a/an/the)
Practice on p.2 of your notes
Make these words plural:Borrador_______________Mochila________________Feliz___________________Plural words have gender, too! Circle the plural endings (s ores) and identify the vocabulary words as masculine or feminine.1.___Lápices2. ___papeles3. ___pizarras4. ____bolígrafos
LosArtículosDefinidos(Definite Articles)
Definite articles meantheThere are FOUR of these in Spanish.Examples____libros(the books)____mochila(the backpack)
los
la
Practice Set1: p.2of your notes
Fill in the blanks with the correct definite article (word forthe).1. _________bolígrafos2. _________puerta3. _________lápiz4. _________pizarras5. _________lápices
Practice Set2:p.2of your notes
Fill in the blanks with the correct definite article (word forthe).1. _________poema2. _________libertad3. _________direcciones4. _________día5. _________clase
LosArtículosIndefinidos(Indefinite Articles)
Indefinitearticles meana, an, or someExamples____libros(some books)____mochila(a backpack)
unos
una
Practice set 1: fillin the blanks with the correct indefinitearticle: p. 3
__________puertas__________mochila__________pizarrón__________borradores__________día__________paredes__________dirección__________lápiz__________papeles
Practice set 2: fillin the blanks with the correct indefinitearticle: p. 3
__________ pared__________escritorios__________papel__________sacapuntas(s.)__________lápices__________amigas__________profesora__________direcciones__________borrador
Gender and Number
Using gender and number to describe classroom items
Using gender and number for descriptions
In Spanish, all parts of a sentence must agree in gender (masculine/feminine) and number (singular/plural).All adjectives comeAFTERthe nouns!Example: ellibrorojo(the red book)Adjectives must change to agree in gender and numberExample: el libro rojolos libros rojos (makeitallmatch!)
Using gender and number for descriptions
To change a masculine word to describe something feminine:If it ends in –o, change to _-a_RojorojaIf it ends in –r, add_-a_Trabajador(hardworking)trabajadoraMost words that end in other letters do not change for genderExamples: Verde,gris
Practicamos(p.4)
Make these plural:EllibrorojoElestudiantealtoEllibrograndeLasillablancaLa alumnabuena
Practicamos(p.4)
Make these feminine:ElestudiantebuenoEl amigofantásticoElchicotrabajador
Review
In this unit, you:Identified classroom items and peopleDescribed classroom objects using adjectives for color, shape, and sizeDetermined the gender of those words using word endingsLearned to write descriptive phrases using articles, nouns and adjectives that agree in gender and number

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