Corruption in Higher Education
Anne Lonsdale CBEPresented at Integrity Leadership CourseSponsored by Integrity ActionBudapest, Hungary5 July 2013
Corruption in Higher Education
What is Corruption ?Cultural IssuesWhat is a University for ? Core Virtues: Truth & RespectThe problem of Academic FreedomMission, Policies, Penalties and PracticeGovernance, systems and structures‘Truth’ and the curriculumMoral education in the 21stCentury
What is corruption in HE ? 1
By Students :for example..Cheating on application forms and documentsCheating in entrance and other exams and term papers; paying others to take examsPlagiarismBuying or selling papers
What is Corruption in HE ? 2.
By Faculty:for example..Falsifying CVs etc. Accepting bribes to admit or pass studentsSeduction, Sexual Harassment or BullyingOther misuses of power, failures of respectFalsifying referencesNB poor professional performance may not be corrupt and has its own penalties
What is Corruption in HE ? 3.
Research:for example..Falsifying applications, data, results, reportsStealing resultsMisusing grantsMisusing power over graduate students and research assistantsUse of influenceon publication
What is corruption in HE ? 4.
Institutional:Government relations and power pressuresGovernance issuesSenior management corrupt, lax or permissiveLack of clarity on rules or their penaltiesPressureofrankingsDangers of an over-commercial approachBox No. Universities, degree millsSemi-professional Sport (in US universities)
Fear : External Power e.g. Zimbabwe,fSUleading to self-censorship, flightBribes : underpaid faculty where ‘informal’ payments are accepted as part of survivale.g.fSUResearch Corruption, from massive competition,passimStudent Cheating : competition, ambition, e.g. Germany; ‘cultural imperative’ e.g. Kazakhs
What is a University for ?
The creation of new knowledge and understanding,both for the individual and for the local, national and international community, through teaching, learning, research and service.Allthatshould be happeningin the classroom andlaboratory can be covered by TRUTHandRESPECTAuniversity’s reputation takes centuries to build and a moment to destroy
Teachingand Research should beevidence-basedobjectivetransparentas accurate as we can make themThey demonstrate respect for TRUTH, theessential characteristic of a University
The oldesteducational principle:‘Maximapuerisdebeturreverentia’‘Pupils are owed the greatest respect’This covers respect for the individual(courtesy)and for the group, (professionalism)(Failure in respect (rudeness, neglect) may not be corrupt, but it is, at the least, misconduct and needs correction.)
The problem of Academic Freedom
It arises in Prussia in 1810, the licence forLernfreiheitundLehrfreiheit,‘Freedom to Teach & Freedom to Learn’What precedes Academic Freedom ?theRevealedTruths of Religion v Blasphemye.g. Galileo, fundamentalism everywhere….
Mission, policies, penalties and practice
Mission StatementPolicies e.g. promotion, research training,Penalties: Codes of Discipline for Faculty & studentsPractice: Implementing all 3 from top down : with clarity, transparency, repetition & familiarisation, emphasis atOrientation, in curricula, examinations, research
Governance & other systemic structures: 1. Principles
Nolan Principles for Public Life (1994) :Selflessness,Integrity,Objectivity,Accountability,Openness,Honesty,Leadership
Governance, etc.2. Systems
Open and accessible:Accounts, etc. onlineSalary scales standardized with clear allowancesHiring process inclusive and externalizedAdmissions process externalized‘Honour System’ or student contract
Governance, etc.3. Structures
OpennessCross-membership of committees internallyExternal membership of Boards (Hiring, examinations,research degrees)Agendas, Minutes on the internal Website(+ clearly stated/restated reserved business rulesPolicies and Proceduresfor students, faculty, staffWidely based financial and disciplinary committees (US v UK practice)
‘Truth’ and the Curriculum
The role of critical thinking and evidence – based learning.i. Teaching ‘Creationism’ – a hangover from the days of universities as religious institutionsii. Teaching Ethics and Politics in post- Soviet, post-ideological universities
Moral Education in the 21stCentury
Is it possible ? Desirable ?Does a university emphasise ‘international’ values ? If so, beware cultural relativismUniversities today may have strong religious or ideological values – or none. In either case, beware cynicism
Moral Education – DerekBok(former President of Harvard University)
“These, then, are the elements of a comprehensive program of moral education: offering courses in appliedethics..,discussingrules of conduct with students and administering them fairly, building strong programs of community service, demonstrating high ethical standards in dealing with moral issues facing the university, and, finally, being more alert to the countless signals that institutions send to students and trying to make these messages support rather than undermine basic norms.”Universities & the Future of America,1990